Wilderness Programs For At-Risk Youth

wilderness programs for at-risk youth - Aspiro Wilderness Therapy

This article will address factors that contribute to a youth being at-risk, common behaviors of at-risk youth, and the warning signs that your teen needs professional help. We will then take a look at how wilderness therapy addresses various problems at-risk youth face and how wilderness therapy can also help their families.

This article is written for at-risk youth, their parents or caregivers, counselors, and anyone seeking help for their youth exhibiting negative behaviors that will affect their long-term path to a successful adult life.

What is an At-Risk Youth?

It can be hard to imagine defining your child as being “at-risk.” As a parent or guardian, you have done your best. You have given your child love and support. You have tried to set a good example, and you want what is best for your child. It is often easy to ignore the signs that your child may need help.

At-risk youth definition: adolescents who are less likely to transition successfully into adulthood and achieve economic self-sufficiency.

Experts say that youth today face more severe challenges than ever before, with school violence, deterioration of structure in families, substance abuse, electronic addiction, and pressure from the media. Teens who have trouble adapting and overcoming these stressors can turn to destructive or unhealthy behaviors. The result of unhealthy behaviors can be detrimental to their futures. These behaviors can derail a once aspiring young person and send them down a risky path.

It can be challenging for parents who have an at-risk youth in their home. There can be more conflict that interrupts the family routine. This conflict often causes a constant feeling of walking on eggshells. Parents do anything to avoid sparking another argument with their struggling teen. Parents often wait to address these issues until things progress to a boiling point. But parents don’t have to wait until the situation is out of control. With proper interventions and treatment, there is hope. Your home can once again become a happy place, filled with trust and healthy relationships. Credible treatment options like wilderness therapy incorporate several methods to help at-risk youth. You can find peace in your family by helping your child increase their self-efficacy and better understand themselves. These increases translate positively into their home life and give you peace of mind as a parent. It helps to know that you did everything that you could to keep your child safe and their future bright.

Common Behaviors of At-Risk Youth

If your child’s behavior takes a negative turn, it may be a sign that something bigger is going on.

Every at-risk youth is different, but there are some delinquent behaviors that programs and schools use as indicators. Frequent absences from school, leading to suspension or expulsion, history of abuse or trauma, and drug use are some examples of apparent signs. Other common behaviors are not as easy to identify, yet they are just as prevalent. It can be critical to identify that your child needs help. Underdeveloped reading skills, isolating behaviors, and lying to parents are some examples.

What is essential to recognize is that some at-risk youth internalize their emotions while others express their feelings externally. Those who internalize emotions often have negative self-talk, low self-esteem, and a distorted view of themselves. It can be challenging for parents to watch their child suffer in this way. It can seem that no matter how many positive things you say to them, they cannot be happy with themselves.

On the other hand, some at-risk youth express their feelings externally. These children often have frequent outbursts of anger towards family members. They can become resistant towards anything that a parent suggests. This resistance can leave the parent feeling helpless. Both internal and external expressions of dysregulated emotions are warning signs for parents. They could be an indication to seek professional help. 

20 Signs Your At-Risk Youth Needs Help

If your teen exhibits more than 4 of the following, they could be at risk for some of the outcomes previously discussed. These can be detrimental to at-risk teens and their long-term success and health.

Common External Behaviors of At-Risk Teens:

  • Experimenting with substances or substance abuse 
  • Youth being verbally abusive to those around him or her
  • Bad peer group association
  • A struggle with basic rules and expectations 
  • Disrupted school year: school suspension, expulsion, truancy or drop in grades
  • Problems with the law or court
  • A parent is ‘walking on eggshells’ when speaking with the youth to avoid conflict
  • Sexual promiscuity and/or risky sexual behaviors 
  • Manipulative or deceitful behavior
  • Stealing from family or others
  • Lying about their whereabouts or activities

Common Internal Behaviors of At-Risk Teens:

  • Difficulty motivating the youth to do household chores and homework
  • Contemplating dropping out of high school
  • Suicidal thoughts or behaviors
  • Loss of interest in former hobbies, activities, or friendships
  • Depression or withdrawal from others
  • Isolation from family and friends
  • Change in personal hygiene or appearance
  • Lack of motivation
  • Poor self-esteem
  • Severe contempt for self or others

Factors Contributing to a Youth At-Risk

Teens can find themselves in the at-risk youth category due to a variety of factors, including:

  • An underlying mental health diagnosis 
  • Family conflict or stress  
  • Community factors 

Examining the contributing factors to youth being at-risk can help to determine the best course of action for you as parents.

Personal Factors Contributing to an At-Risk Youth

Individual diagnoses can contribute to youth being at-risk. A teen diagnosed with depression may be more at risk for suicidal thoughts. Similarly, a teen diagnosed with a personality or mood disorder may be more at risk for verbal or physical outbursts. A recent trauma a teen may have experienced, such as the death of a loved one or a disruptive life event may also be a contributing factor. It is also essential to know that teens can find themselves at-risk regardless of their background. Sex, race, religion, economic status, gender identity, and sexual orientation do not exclude any teen from being at-risk.

Family Risk Factors Contributing to an At-Risk Youth

Teens can also be at-risk because of family risk factors outside of their control. These sometimes include single parenthood, divorce, financial hardships, family dysfunction, and parents who struggle with mental health conditions. These factors can put undue pressures on developing teens and can contribute to problematic behaviors

Community Risk Factors Contributing to an At-Risk Youth

Teens can be at-risk on a community level for many reasons. When they fall in with the wrong friend group, they experience bullying, exposed to pressures of social media, and succumb to peer pressure. Youth at-risk is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. It can be hard for parents to know when it is time to seek counseling and professional help for your at-risk teen. Treatment programs vary in their measurement of what precisely an at-risk youth is. If your teen exhibits the above behaviors, they could be at risk for some of the outcomes previously discussed. These can be detrimental to their long-term health and success. The positive results of youth empowerment programs are improved social skills, improved behavior, increased academic achievement, increased self-esteem, and increased self-efficacy.

Help for Families With At-Risk Youth

It can be challenging for parents who have an at-risk youth in their home. There is almost always an increase in conflict. This conflict interrupts the family routine and harmony. It can be uncomfortable for parents when they try to avoid sparking an argument with their struggling teen.

Living in such an environment is not sustainable, nor is it healthy for anyone involved. This problem should be addressed sooner rather than later. With proper intervention and treatment, there is hope. Your home can once again become a happy place. It can be filled with trust and healthy relationships. Credible treatment options, such as wilderness therapy, incorporate several methods to help your at-risk youth strengthen their self-efficacy and understanding of themselves. These results translate positively into their home life and also to your peace of mind.

Wilderness Programs For Troubled Youth

Wilderness therapy addresses many of the behavioral outcomes present in at-risk youth. Furthermore, wilderness therapy is effective at getting to the root cause of problem behaviors, rather than just treating symptoms. Wilderness therapy can increase self-efficacy, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills. Students in wilderness therapy programs often report decreased levels of depression and anxiety.

Wilderness Therapy Promotes Self-Efficacy and Builds Confidence in At-Risk Youth

Building Self-Efficacy: Some credible wilderness treatment programs incorporate high adventure activities and therapy in a wilderness setting. By including high adventure activities programs aim to create challenging scenarios for students. In these scenarios, students have the opportunity to learn skills and overcome seemingly impossible challenges. While engaging in these various physical activities, the trained staff give students positive verbal encouragement and feedback, which also helps to increase their personal efficacy. 

This process has proven highly effective at building self-efficacy.  Self-efficacy, as defined by Bandura, is “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute a course of action required to attain designated types of performances” (Bandura, 1986, p. 391). Research has shown that changing one’s belief in oneself is necessary for changing behavior on a long-term basis. This is different than just building confidence. Self-efficacy is about knowing one’s ability to overcome challenges. This is based on past performance. It is more successful in focusing on the intrinsic motivation to change. Rather than just focusing on improving the behaviors themselves. 

High self-efficacy can contribute to a positive perception of one’s actions. This positivity increases motivation to persist through adversity. This increase in motivation is a positive change for a youth who is at risk. Changing someone’s perceptions of their efficacy is the most effective. It can transform at-risk youth into a thriving adolescent or young adult. 

Let’s take a moment to understand where personal efficacy is derived from:

  • Past performance
  • Perceptions of one’s ability or others with similar abilities
  • Verbal feedback
  • The person’s physical state while performing the task 

Wilderness therapy incorporates these four factors in programming and treatment models. These four factors create a unique environment that builds self-efficacy. At-risk youth start to believe in their ability to be successful. As this belief grows, the negative behaviors that were seen in the home environment begin to diminish.

Building Confidence: Confidence is a derivative measure rooted in self-efficacy. A credible wilderness program leverage the past performance factor mentioned above to work towards a stable confidence level in students. This increased confidence happens when someone proves to themselves that they can overcome obstacles. Research shows that this newfound confidence translates beyond the wilderness setting to emotional, behavioral, and academic success. They can take pride in who they are and what they can accomplish. Processing and debriefing are tools often used to help youth internalize the wilderness experience. Program facilitators lead discussions that allow students to acknowledge their progress. Students then relate these experiences to their own therapeutic goals.

Wilderness Therapy Provides a Novel and Therapeutic Environment for At-Risk Youth

A credible wilderness therapy program will provide unique opportunities for personal growth through mental health treatment. They do this while incorporating the healing effects of the outdoors. Being away from the distractions that are present in a typical adolescent and young adult life is an ideal environment, where they can realize their true potential. Research shows that merely spending time outside can improve both physical and mental health. Wilderness therapy is not just playing outdoors, nor is it a ‘boot camp.‘ Instead, therapists assess the at-risk youth’s varying needs. With this information, they can direct each step in their care. Therapists create a unique treatment plan for each student. This treatment plan is implemented throughout the process. 

Credible wilderness therapy programs take a whole person approach towards treatment. For example, at Aspiro, instead of focusing on a single problem like school failure, therapists strive to build a relationship with each client. They then can address the root causes of behaviors rather than just the symptoms.

A credible wilderness therapy program will use a variety of methods to help at-risk youth have a successful future. Aspiro, for example, uses a 

  • Research-based and results-driven model
  • Individual and group therapy
  • High adventure therapy
  • Individualized treatment plans
  • Relational approach 
  • Positive psychology modalities
  • Family systems therapy
  • In-depth assessment tools
  • Transitional support/ long-term recommendations

All of these methods have been shown to increase success for those people who were once at-risk youth. Overall, wilderness therapy programs increase the chances of long-term success for at-risk youth. 

Wilderness Adventure Therapy Can Help Your Family Emerge Better Than Before

Wilderness therapy can help not only the youth-at-risk but also their families. Research shows that parent-adolescent conflict correlates with some at-risk behaviors. Therefore, the relationship between the parent and youth is an essential factor in preventing at-risk behaviors, along with sustaining healthy patterns once achieved. A family assessment and integrated family therapy are critical to the success of any credible wilderness camp.

Wilderness Therapy Addresses Family Dynamics and Patterns

Some wilderness therapy programs incorporate families into the treatment process. Working with parents and other family members can set the youth up to succeed better once they return home from treatment. Programs like Aspiro invite parents to multi-day family workshops. Families typically come after the teen has completed a significant portion of the program. This way, they can see the progress the youth has already made. Parents and teens find new ways to succeed in their relationships and as individuals during treatment. The parent workshop includes several sections. One of those sections teaches parents to limit conflict between themselves and their teens. Less friction leads to a more harmonious home. In addition to the family workshop, parents engage in family systems therapy weekly at Aspiro. Addressing the whole family system is seen as critical to the overall treatment plan for the at-risk youth.

Wilderness Therapy Leads To Healthier Families

When the parent-youth relationship deteriorates, at-risk behaviors often follow. As a way to achieve healthier patterns within the home, wilderness therapy works with the whole family system. Family units work with each other to overcome the toxicity that often exists in the house before treatment. All members of the family are guided through this process by a clinician. Once everyone can take a step back and get themselves to a healthier place there is less conflict within the parent-child relationship. As the relationship with parents improves, values become more aligned. Often this equates to fewer arguments and more communication, in addition to an improved quality of life. These changes can make all the difference.

A recent study found that youth returning from wilderness therapy programs reported significant improvements in their mood and behavior. These once struggling youth have higher levels of self-efficacy, improved confidence, and in turn, improved relationships with their families.

Conclusion

A teen can be at-risk for a variety of reasons. However, regardless of the cause or individual circumstance, it is always extremely heartbreaking and challenging for parents to have an at-risk teen in their family. As a result, many parents feel overwhelmed about how they can best help their teens. However, the road to recovery for your loved one begins with identifying your ‘at-risk’ teen, then seeking out the help they need. 

Credible wilderness therapy can provide you with peace of mind. Knowing your teen will be on a better path to health and long-term success. They achieve this by increasing at-risk youth’s self-efficacy and confidence. They can help him, or her, overcome the negative aspects of their life that have dragged them down. 

With proper support and care, your teen and your family can emerge happier and healthier than ever before.

About Aspiro Wilderness Therapy Program

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Aspiro Adventure’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their parents through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

About the Author

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Why is Teen Identity Development Important?

Why Teen Identity Development is Important | Aspiro Adventure Therapy

The importance of identity development for teens is huge.  The development of a confident and stable sense of self is one of the key tasks of being a teenager. The teenage years are usually the first time an individual begins thinking about how their identity may affect their future and their life. This results in many teens becoming extremely self-conscious about themselves and the way others see them and can result in a self-discovery and experimental stage.

Some teens are able to learn to develop and discover their identity in a healthy and age-appropriate way. However, for other teens, the time of identity formation results in participation in risky and promiscuous behaviors that could potentially have a negative and lasting effect on their lives.

Participation in harmful and inappropriate behavior can be very concerning for parents of troubled teens. However, it’s important for parents of troubled teens to remember that all teens can become healthy and happy once again with proper treatment. A credible adventure therapy program teaches teens healthy patterns of thought and action that can replace harmful and risky behaviors with positive and healthy attitudes, relationships, and a greater sense of self.

What is Teen Identity Development?

Identity refers to one’s sense of as an individual and how they define themselves in terms of values, beliefs, and role in the world. Self-identity in adolescence forms the basis of our self-esteem later in life. A teen’s identity is the result of various internal and external factors. Though a teen has some control over their identity development, teen identities are also formed by environmental forces outside of their control: peers, family, school, ethnic identity, and other social environments. A developmental psychologist, James Marcia, advocates that teen identity development occurs in response to crises in domains such as school, relationships, and values.

Teen identity develops as teens try out different roles and attitudes in different settings, such as home, school, and social atmospheres which allows teens the opportunity to explore their own values, belief systems, personal ethics, spirituality, sexuality, and gender.

Why is Teen Identity Development Important?

Identity formation in teens is about developing a strong sense of self, personality, connection to others and individuality. Therefore, a positive teen self-identity is vital because it shapes a teen’s perception of belonging not just for their teen years but for most of their adult life. In addition, a positive self-identity is correlated with higher self-esteem. Positive reinforcements of effort, good choices, and perseverance from parents can help adolescents develop a strong sense of self.

Erik Erikson, a psychologist, argues that if a teen does not establish what their personal beliefs and values are then they will have an identity crisis. Erikson believes identity development is a key process for teens and that a failure to establish identity leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self later in life.

5 Common Ways Troubled Teens Display Their Self- Identity Issues

As a way to navigate the stress and confusion that comes with identity development some teens, turn to outside signs and symbols to help them define their identity. Les Parrott, Ph.D., a professor of psychology, developed the five most common ways in which teens demonstrate their struggles with identity.

Examples of Identity Issues

The 5 most common ways teens display issues with self-identity include:

  • Seeking Status Symbols: Includes clothing and possessions to create a sense of positive affiliation
  • Forbidden “Grown-up” Behaviors: Some teens believe that appearing mature will bring acceptance, so they begin engaging behaviors such as smoking, drinking, drugs, and sexual activity.
  • Rebellion: Many teens use rebellion as a way to show that they are different from their parents and to be accepted by their peers.
  • Idols: Some teens may identify with a famous person and as a result, try to become like that person. As a result, they lose hold of their own identity.
  • Cliques: Teens who are forming their identity will often form cliques because they do not want to be associated with anyone with undesirable characteristics.

Again, there are a variety of ways that teens experience identity formation, some experiences being more harmful than others. In the sections below, we discuss the more serious issues in teen identity development and how parents can help.

How Parents Can Help Their Teenager Form a Positive Self-Identity

Parents are very important in terms of teen identity development. Teens with close relationships with their parents have lower rates of experimentation with drugs and risky sexual behaviors (Teen Connection, Mental Health, and Youth, PBS). For your teen, the process of teen identity development can be a stressful time and can lead to one feeling overwhelmed and unsure. Providing your child with a caring and accepting adult influence, whether you are a parent, relative, or teacher, is critical in securing a healthy identity development. Simply spending time with your troubled teen is one of the most important roles you can play in their life. The consistent and caring influence and presence of adults in an adolescent’s life is one of the best ways to ensure a seamless transition to adulthood.

Parents can help their troubled teen develop a positive self-identity in the following ways:

  • Model healthy lifestyle habits and skills to manage stress
  • Teach healthy ways to handle life disappointments
  • Avoid making comparisons between your teen and others
  • Give your teen compliments or positive reinforcement
  • Encourage and promote healthy sleep habits for your teen
  • Hold boundaries with your child while communicating love for them as a person

When parents have exhausted the above methods and still continues to see their teen struggle to form their identity, it may be time to seek professional help. One of the best treatment options in helping struggling teens develop a positive self-identity is through a credible adventure therapy program. Adventure recreation has a long history as an intervention used to promote positive change in promoting healthy identity development in teens.

How Can a Wilderness Program For Teens Help Your Family?

Though it can be hard for parents to let go and acknowledge their teen needs external help, a credible adventure therapy program can relatively quickly and positively change your son or daughter’s life for the better. Psychologist Erik Erikson advocated that teen identity development is fostered by experiences that allow individuals to express their individuality and receive feedback and validation from others.

Adventure therapy programs provide experiences that promote healthier relationships and positive identity formation in teens. A credible adventure therapy program can also positively affect a teen’s self-perception, confidence, and leadership skills by providing unique experiences and challenging opportunities that develop competence and confidence from within.

Wilderness Therapy Promotes Healthy Teen Relationships

The activities of a wilderness therapy program include unique experiences such as rappelling, rock climbing, and mountain biking. These experiences provide a novel and prime opportunity for teens to develop their identity and learn how to relate to others in a healthy and positive way. Research shows the scope of adventure activities led individuals to drop their social facades and allow teens to become more open to self-reflection and feedback from others (Taniguchi, 2004). Furthermore, a credible adventure therapy program allows troubled teens with a unique opportunity to develop meaningful friendships with peers and adult therapists because many of the activities require participants to work together in teams in order to succeed.

Wilderness Therapy Promotes Confidence in Teens

Adventure therapy also promotes confidence in teens. When a teen participates in a challenging activity, they see they can overcome obstacles and activities that seem difficult at the start, such as rock-climbing, hiking, or backpacking. Pushing past a physical boundary can increase the youth’s self-esteem and teach them they can do hard things.

In learning that they can overcome difficult odds, their perceptions of themselves and their personal abilities are improved. They can take pride in who they are and what they can accomplish. While engaging in these various physical activities, the trained staff give them positive verbal encouragement and feedback which also helps to increase their personal efficacy. Processing experiences during and after activities with therapists help teens internalize the experiences they are having and relate them to their sense of self.

Wilderness Therapy Promotes Positive Identity Formation in Teens

Research shows that providing teens with opportunities for self-expression, feedback from others, new experiences, skill acquisition, and self-reflection can help facilitate positive identity development in teens (Duerden, Mat. Widmer, Mark. “Adventures in Identity Development: The Impact of Adventure Recreation on Adolescent Identity Development, 2009). A credible adventure therapy accomplishes this through organized adventure activities that challenge the individual just enough to promote positive identity development. Within this spectrum of organized activities, a credible adventure therapy program teaches teens how to overcome challenges and develop a sense of competence, both of which promote identity development in teens.

Additionally, the recreational activities in an adventure therapy program, such as hiking or biking, can play a critical development role for teens because it provides a context to participate in a challenging activity that will positively contribute to identity development and self-confidence. Along the way, a credible adventure therapy program will provide the teen with experienced and caring therapists to provide helpful tools and feedback that can positively impact their identity development.

Conclusion

The process of forming an identity is a critical task of adolescence. Teen identity formation involves one learning how they want to express themselves and their personality in their own unique way. This process can lead to some teens making choices that disappoint the expectations of some of your family or friends. Parents of troubled teens should ensure they are providing their teen with love, support, and healthy boundaries that promote healthy development.

However, when the choices your teen makes become harmful to themselves or others, it may be time to seek external help. A growing body of findings suggests that the organized activities a credible adventure therapy program offers can provide teens with lasting benefits in establishing healthier patterns and can assist teens in positive identity formation. With proper help, your teen can become their best self and feel content and confident in their own skin.

To learn more about why teen identity is important, download our FREE white paper today by following the link below.

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

Aspiro’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

At Aspiro Adventure, we focus on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various emotional, behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

About the Author

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

13 Signs of Anxiety in Young Adults and Teenagers

13 Signs of Anxiety in Young Adults and Teenagers | Aspiro Adventure Therapy

Anxiety disorders affect 25.1% of children between 13 and 18 years old and 19% of adults. If you don’t struggle with anxiety, someone you know does.  But anxiety in teens and young adults is a mental health issue that often goes undiagnosed or unnoticed. How do you know if feelings of anxiety come from normal everyday anxiety or an anxiety disorder? These signs of anxiety in young adults and teenagers will indicate if your child needs professional help.

The emotion of anxiety is a normal reaction to help deal with the stress of everyday life: e.g. anxiety can help a student focus on studying harder for a difficult exam or help an athlete play harder at a sporting event. When one’s feelings of anxiety become chronic, uncontrollable, or with no root cause or meaning, it can become a true problem, interfering with the quality of life.

While anxiety, like depression, is often thought of as an “adult” problem, teens and young adults may worry about everything from school, fitting in with peers, getting along with family members, or their own personal shortcomings. Individuals may experience anxiety symptoms in different ways; the following are potential signs of anxiety in teens and young adults.

Signs of Anxiety in Teens and Young Adults

  • Excessive fear or anxiety about things before they happen
  • Excessive worries about school, peers, or extracurricular activities
  • Constant concern and worry about safety for self or family members
  • Irritability
  • Displaying clingy behavior with parents and family members
  • Fear of staying the night away from one’s home
  • An inability to relax
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Unexpected shortness of breath
  • Becoming easily alarmed or startled
  • Complaints of physical ailments (stomachaches, headaches, muscle aches, and tension)
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Avoiding/refusing to go to school
  • Excessive lethargy or fatigue

Did you know, anxiety disorders are the most common mental illness in the U.S., affecting over 19% of the population every year?

Like the signs of depression, signs of anxiety in teens and young adults can often go overlooked, as some of these behaviors can be normal. However, if you have reviewed these signs of anxiety in teens and young adults and suspect that your son or daughter has intense anxiety that goes beyond normal worries and concerns, it is important to talk to him or her. If you are still concerned, consult a healthcare or mental health professional to get your son or daughter the help and treatment he or she needs.

These symptoms may indicate that your child is struggling with an anxiety disorder.

Types of Anxiety Disorders

The main categories of anxiety disorders include:

  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) – most days for at least 6 months, display excessive anxiety or worry about many areas of life, eg. school, work, friendships & relationships, health, etc.
  • Panic Disorder – recurrent unexpected panic attacks that can occur unexpectedly or can be brought on by a trigger.
  • Phobia Disorders – these include specific phobias(flying, heights, spiders, etc), social anxiety disorders (fear of social situations), agoraphobia, separation anxiety disorder, and selective mutism.

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD) are both closely related to anxiety and frequently occur together with anxiety disorders.

Anxiety and Common Co-occurring Disorders

If your son or daughter is struggling with anxiety, it is likely they are also struggling with a co-occurring mental illness.  These are some of the common disorders that present with anxiety:

  • Depression  – Nearly one-half of those diagnosed with depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder.
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)– Anxiety is one condition that is often seen in people with ADHD. About 50 percent of adults and up to 30 percent of children with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder.
  • Substance Abuse – The presence of an anxiety or substance use disorder is also a risk factor for the presence of the other disorder. About 20% of Americans with an anxiety disorder also have an alcohol or other substance use disorder.
  • Bipolar disorder – Bipolar disorder significantly co-occurs with anxiety disorders at rates that are higher than those in the general population. Studies have found that 21% of people with bipolar disorder had a social phobia, 20% of people with bipolar disorder had OCD, 40% of people with bipolar disorder also have PTSD.
  • Eating DisordersA 2004 study found that two-thirds of people with eating disorders suffer from an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives and that around 42% had developed an anxiety disorder during childhood, well before the onset of their eating disorder.
  • Sleep Disorders – Anxiety causes sleeping problems, and new research suggests sleep deprivation can cause an anxiety disorder.

When looking for treatment options, it is important to address all of the struggles and the root cause of the problems, not just the anxiety.

Treatment for Anxiety in Teens and Young Adults

Treatment for anxiety disorders can vary, especially among teens, and young adults.  While every individual is different, your son or daughter’s treatment will depend on various factors, including:

  • His or her overall physical health and medical history
  • His or her diagnosis (whether he/she has anxiety, depression, or both)
  • Age (depending on his or her age, treatment approaches will vary)
  • The extent of the symptoms he or she is displaying
  • His or her reaction to different medications
  • His or her reaction to therapy
  • Your personal preference on what you think will be the best therapeutic “fit” for your child and family.

Treatment for anxiety can include:

  • medication
  • individual therapy
  • and sometimes family therapy as a positive family dynamic is key to helping your child through his or her anxiety.

Did you know that anxiety disorders are highly treatable, yet only 36.9% of those suffering receive treatment?

Your child’s doctor should perform an extensive, comprehensive evaluation of your child and your family before prescribing treatment.

Why Wilderness Adventure Therapy is So Effective in Treating Anxiety

Over the past few decades, wilderness adventure therapy programs have become more prevalent, as the demand for effective alternatives in therapy has increased. The popularity of wilderness therapy is due to its ability to help teens and young adults in overcoming anxiety– among other cognitive, emotional, and behavioral issues.  There are three main factors that make wilderness therapy so effective in treating anxiety:

  1. Exposure to the Therapeutic Wilderness Setting
  2. Therapeutic Group Living
  3. Adventure Activities

Conclusion

While anxiety is often overlooked in teens and young adults, research shows that recognizing the signs early, and getting your child treatment early on, are the best ways to help him or her.

While no parent wants to send their child away, sometimes doing the right thing isn’t always the easy thing. In order to provide help for your child’s anxiety, it is important to select a treatment program that is reputable, credible, and effective in addressing teens’ and young adults’ individual issues.

About Aspiro Adventure

Play Video

Aspiro Adventure’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right. Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

About the Author

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Failing College? 5 Tips for Conquering Academic Failure

Failing College? 5 Tips to Overcome Academic Failure

Don’t let failing college hurt your relationships, decrease your self-worth, or cause you to develop more serious mental health issues like depression & anxiety.  Here are five ways you can conquer academic failure.

Whether you’re going to college for the first time or are in your final semesters trying to power through to graduation, life in the academic world can be challenging. On top of the pressure to perform academically, many students struggle with living away from home. Being financially independent, making new friends, or finding direction in your life can all be overwhelming new challenges. It’s little wonder that 1 in 5 college students are affected by anxiety or depression.

1 in 5 college students are affected by anxiety or depression.

If left unchecked, these common challenges can lead to academic failure. A damaged GPA can hurt your chances of getting scholarships or being accepted to certain programs of study. It will also, most likely, increase the time it takes for you to earn a degree and find work opportunities related to your field of study.

More importantly, the stress that comes with living under such intense pressure can damage your relationships with friends and family, cause you to develop depression or anxiety, and can even lead to more serious mental health issues like suicidal ideation.

The good news is, there are a lot of resources available on and off campus to help students through this difficult time. College failure can be a scary prospect, but it doesn’t have to be your only option.

Whether you are considering staying in school, taking a semester or two off, or dropping out entirely, here are a few helpful tips that will help you find success.

Learn What Resources Are Available to You

Before you make any big decisions, it would be smart to pay a visit to your school’s counseling center. While many students have likely worked through the college admissions process and discussed grades with a high school counselor, few seem to realize that most college campuses offer similar resources.

School counselors will be able to help you understand the effects your grades will have on your future academic career and what you can do to mitigate the damage lower grades might cause to your transcript. In some cases, you may be able to retake a class or have your grades based on completion instead of a letter grade.

Your school counselor will know what kind of mental health resources your school provides. Thanks to mental health awareness increasing all over the country, many colleges and universities employ school psychologists to help their students work through whatever challenges they may be facing.

Reach Out to Family & Trusted Friends For Help

Unfortunately, many parents and close family members are simply unaware when students are facing difficult circumstances related to college. Even if you’re still living at home, communication usually decreases due to busy schedules and a student’s desire to be independent.

Your parents may ask you about what you’re learning and other exciting activities you are participating in, but without any indications of your internal struggles, they may not think to ask about how you’re doing mentally and emotionally.

Although asking for help may feel embarrassing or shameful it’s completely normal. Your parents or other trusted friends who have been through the college experience before will usually be eager to offer helpful advice or just to lend a listening ear.

They have probably experienced the fear of failure themselves and will be able to relate to how you’re feeling. Spending quality time with people who love you can also help you notice ways in which you are succeeding and help you recognize your value.

Parents are usually willing and eager to help their children but might not always know how. Feel free to look through our other blog posts and additional family resources for more ideas on how to talk with your parents.

Work on Mastering the Little Things

When your life is full of seemingly insurmountable tasks, it can be helpful to distinguish between the things you can and cannot control. For example, you may not be able to control what grade a professor will give for the essay you submitted, but you can control how you’ll react to whatever feedback you receive.

Examples of other things you’ll most likely be able to control are:

  • When you go to sleep and other routines you keep
  • The quality and amount of food you eat
  • How much time you spend on social media and video games
  • How much money you spend on eating out vs. cooking at home
  • Avoiding harmful substances like drugs and alcohol
  • Positive ways you spend your free time (extra-curricular activities, volunteering in the community, participating in clubs, working on a hobby, etc.)
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Sometimes, students living on their own for the first time struggle with common life skills like cooking, keeping a tidy dorm, or caring for a car. Growing up with the limitless distractions of the information age also means students spend less time honing their social skills too.

Taking time to learn these little skills from family or friends can also help you exercise more control over your life. There are even many helpful resources available online to help you learn these basic life skills. Being able to take good care of yourself, your relationships, and your belongings brings a sense of pride that will boost your self-esteem and give you the confidence to face bigger challenges.

Diversify Your Field of Study

Many students struggle to get through general education courses. Because they might have failed math or scored poorly on a psychology test they might feel like school just isn’t for them. General courses are beneficial in expanding your world view and helping you develop grit, but they’re not the most important classes you’ll take.

Higher-level courses that are focused on specific subjects often have smaller class sizes and can be easier to get excited about academically. Even if you’ve failed a general class in your first few semesters, realize that a lower grade now won’t have as great of an effect on your academic standing further on in your university career. Pushing through the generals now and succeeding in higher-level classes later will help you get back into good standing.

You might find more success in a field of study you hadn’t previously considered. Many students have hopes of becoming doctors, engineers, or businessmen and -women; fields that traditionally favor STEM subjects like math and science.

Try taking a liberal arts class in the humanities, communications, or fine arts programs at your school. Even if a career in these fields doesn’t interest you, these classes generally teach creativity, communication, critical thinking, and many more marketable skills that many high-profile employers are after. Most campuses also have career resource centers that can help you identify your interests and strengths and recommend courses that you will find enjoyable.

If you’re already enrolled in a specific major, consider talking to a counselor from your program about ways to fulfill general requirements that are more interesting to you. They have most likely worked with many students just like you before and know ways to help you find success.

Many programs offer courses that will fulfill general and major requirements. Not only will these classes help you feel more interested and successful, but they will also get you closer to graduation faster than your regular general classes might.

Many college campuses regularly host major fairs & career fairs. If you haven’t quite decided on a major, consider attending one of these events. This can be a great place to meet counselors, students, and successful people in various fields of study that interest you and can help you discover programs you might not have been aware of previously.

You could also try talking to other students about their majors to find something that interests you more. Try joining a club where you’ll find students with common interests or backgrounds to learn about new opportunities.

Consider Taking Time Off

Graduating is no little task. Recent figures show 6-year graduation rates at 58%. That means that, even after 6 years at a 4-year college or university, at least 42% of students still don’t have a college degree. While the idea of finishing college as soon as possible can be appealing (especially to your wallet), sometimes, overwhelmed students just need to take a deep breath and step back from all of the stressors that college life brings.

Even after 6 years at a 4-year college or university, at least 42% of students still don't have a college degree.

Consider lightening your course load and take one or two classes instead of a full-time schedule. Talk to your school counselors about internship opportunities that might help you save or earn extra money while still receiving course credit. There’s no shame in taking a little extra time to graduate if it means expanding your horizons and gaining diverse experiences.

If you do decide to take time off, it’s also a good idea to give your break an expiration date. Decide beforehand how long you’ll defer your study–a semester or two would be preferable in most cases. It’s normal for people (your family especially) to worry about whether or not you’ll ever go back to school. If you have a concrete plan, you shouldn’t have to worry about what they may think or say.

Make sure you spend your time doing something productive like getting a job, traveling, volunteering, or some other activity that inspires you. You can still take a valuable break without giving up entirely.

Don’t be afraid to try a class at a local community college or a vocational school. While a degree from any number of elite colleges can open many doors of opportunity, there are many successful people who have taken other paths. Depending on your personal situation, you might find better opportunities where you didn’t think to look before.

Enrolling in a Wilderness Adventure Therapy Program like Aspiro could also be an excellent way to get your life back on track. Well-trained guides and therapists can help you in many of the same ways school counselors and trusted family members can as mentioned above. A few big advantages they have, however, is the ability and resources to help you navigate your struggles with research-based expertise and the time to focus individually on your growth and progress. 

Spending time in the wilderness can help you change bad habits by shaking up your routines and helping you disconnect from addictive technology and substances. Participants at Aspiro also develop new hobbies and forge new friendships that can last a lifetime.

Additionally, Aspiro participants set goals and learn strategies that help will help you develop the self-efficacy & resilience needed to face the challenges in everyday life. Perhaps the best part of wilderness adventure therapy is that you’ll receive all of these benefits while also participating in fun adventure activities like rock climbing, mountain biking, skiing, and more.

We hope you find these suggestions helpful and wish you well in your academic career. Contact our admissions team at [email protected] or by calling 801-349-2740 to learn more about how we help young adults and how you can become an Aspiro participant.

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy

Aspiro Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

About the Author

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Boot Camp for Teens: Is There a More Effective Solution?

Boot Camp For Teens There is a Better Solution | Asprio Adventure Therapy

​When a child is struggling, there is nothing a parent wouldn’t do to help. And when parents have exhausted all of their resources and don’t know where to turn, some decide to turn to more extreme treatment methods, such as a boot camp for teens, to help their struggling child.

Teen boot camp programs are designed to emulate the tactics used in military schools and boot camps. The troubled teen program offers fast results for parents who have lost control of their son or daughter. While boot camps are effective at building strength and discipline, teen boot camps typically do not have a therapeutic model to address the underlying issues behind teen defiance and rebellion. This leaves many asking, “Why do parents send their troubled teens to a boot camp in the first place?”

In many cases, at-risk youth are sent to private boot camps to remedy an undesirable behavior. Whether the behavior is substance abuse, anger, defying authority, academic underachievement, or breaking the rules, there is likely a deeper, underlying emotional issue that should be addressed.

What is a Boot Camp for Teens?

Teen boot camps are short-term, highly structured military-style rehabilitation programs. They are designed to use military training, authoritative teaching methods, rigorous exercise and physical activity, and strict discipline to turn around defiant, angry, or even destructive children. The hope is that the troubled teen will go back home with the attitude of a “good soldier.”

Designed to teach troubled teens to respect authority and to learn to deal with their consequences, boot camps push teens to their physical extremes. Sometimes, however, they may push too far. While these programs may prove effective for teens who want to attend to become more disciplined, teen boot camps are not an effective therapeutic treatment program for teens who are truly struggling– whatever their struggle may be.

Why Aren’t Boot Camps Effective in Helping Troubled Teens?

If a teen is truly in crisis, a boot camp program is not the most effective treatment program for him or her. Boot camps lack the sophisticated clinical model and individualized treatment plans that other, more therapeutically effective treatment programs have. The following are reasons boot camps are not effective in helping truly troubled teens.

1. Boot Camps for Kids Do Not Create Lasting Change

Since boot camps are not a sustainable model for troubled youth once they are back in the “real world,” teen boot camps do not deliver lasting results. Additionally, teen boot camps stress following orders and do not foster a sense of autonomy, responsibility, or well-being in their participants. These are all vital aspects and the foundations behind achieving life-long change.

2. Boot Camps for Teens Do Not Involve the Family

Since teen boot camps do not involve the entire family in treatment, they do nothing to improve the family dynamic; improving the family dynamic is likely a large part of why teens are sent to boot camps in the first place. In addition to not addressing the family dynamic, sending a teen in crisis away may make him or her feel misunderstood or deserted in their time of need.

3. Boot Camps Do Not Teach Coping Strategies to Help Teens Through Struggles

Since boot camps use exercise, structure, strict schedules, and punishment to motivate teens, rather than using counseling and therapy to work through their struggles, teens leave boot camps without the proper coping mechanisms to help deal with their individual struggles in the “real world.”

4. Boot Camps are a “One-size-fits-all” Approach

While every teen in crisis has a different struggle, background, and story, boot camps have one method to treat each individual. In fact, Keith C. Russell, a leader in outdoor behavioral healthcare research, has noted that recent research shows that “boot camp approaches are not effective in treating adolescents with substance abuse disorders, and that practices used in boot camps can be considered cruel and unusual.” (Russell 2001)

5. Boot Camps for Teens Do Not Directly Address Troubled Teens’ Real Problems

Teens who attend boot camps are often sent to remedy an undesirable behavior, such as substance abuse, anger, defying authority, academic underachievement, or breaking the rules; however, with these behaviors there is likely a deeper, underlying emotional issue that should be addressed.

A teen who is acting out and running away or experimenting with drugs and alcohol may be covering up a more serious undiagnosed mental illness, such as depression or anxiety. A teen who is performing poorly at school or skipping class may have an undiagnosed learning disorder or attention deficit. Boot camps do not address these potential underlying issues.

Signs a Troubled Teen Needs Treatment

Teenage years can be rough for parents and teens alike. Often times, it can seem like teens are on an emotional roller coaster, as this is a dynamic time in one’s life. It is perfectly normal for teens to display typical teen behavior, such as mood swings, an increased peer influence, and a changing appearance; however, there are some red flags that parents should keep an eye out for.

While teens are likely to turn to their friends rather than their parents for advice on making choices, a sudden change in their entire peer group could be a red flag, especially if the newfound friends are having a negative influence or encourage bad behavior. In addition, young people may want to express their newfound individuality by dying their hair or trying a new style of clothing; however, an extreme change in appearances, such as an extreme weight loss or gain could signify a bigger problem. Here are some other red flag signs to look for in a troubled teen:

  • Secretive behavior, deception, or lying
  • Unexpected/unexplainable decreased or failing academic performance
  • Spending too much time sleeping
  • Significant changes in appetite or eating patterns (skipping meals, avoiding food)
  • Excessive Isolation
  • Regularly missing curfew
  • Stealing
  • Skipping school
  • Body image issues
  • Promiscuity
  • Significant disregard for personal hygiene
  • Withdrawal from favorite sports or activities
  • Excessive outbursts
  • Self-mutilation (cutting) or mentioning hurting him or herself
  • Extreme defiance
  • Bullying others
  • Experimenting with alcohol and drugs
  • Loss of self-esteem/extreme self-loathing

If a teen is displaying some of these red flag signs, it may be time to think about an appropriate treatment program, as these could be signs of a mental illness, destructive behavior, substance abuse problem, or eating disorder. While some parents may be tempted by the quick turnaround that many teen boot camps offer, these serious issues should be addressed more therapeutically.

Are There More Effective Therapeutic Treatment Options?

If your son or daughter is truly struggling with a mental illness, substance abuse, emotional, cognitive, or developmental issues, a teen boot camp may not be the most ideal or effective treatment option for him or her.

There are more effective and therapeutic programs out there for teenagers who need personalized care to work through their issues. Depending on the type and severity of issue(s) your son or daughter is facing, there are many therapeutic options available.

If your teen’s issues are severe enough that you are considering placing him or her in a teen boot camp, you should know that there are many types of therapeutic residential treatment programs available. Residential treatment centers and therapeutic programs have proven effective at getting to the root of the issues that teens face.

What is Wilderness Therapy?

One of these treatment options is a wilderness therapy program. The popularity of wilderness therapy programs has increased over the past few decades. The increase in wilderness therapy’s popularity is due to its ability to aid individuals in overcoming emotional, behavioral, and cognitive issues.

A large part of the effectiveness of wilderness therapy programs is due to the individualized, therapeutic methods of helping each teen work through his or her own personal issues. In fact, “the design and theoretical basis of a wilderness therapy program should be therapeutically based, with assumptions made clear and concise in order to better determine target outcomes and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention” (Bandoroff & Scherer, 1994)

What Makes Wilderness Therapy so Effective in Helping Troubled Teens?

There are several attributes of wilderness therapy that make this type of treatment especially effective in addressing the underlying issues troubled teenagers face while creating lasting change.

Using the Wilderness and Unfamiliar Environments to Create a Unique Experience

One aspect that makes wilderness therapy an extremely effective method of treatment is the use of the wilderness and adventure activities to challenge teens. Living in the wilderness is such a novel, unfamiliar environment and experience for many teenagers, allowing them to leave the pressure and stress of their everyday lives behind them. Research has shown that simply being exposed to the wilderness has positive effects on individuals’:

  • self-discipline
  • executive functioning
  • attentional functioning
  • ADHD symptoms
  • problem-solving
  • critical thinking

Giving Teens an Opportunity to Form New Bonds and Relationships

Wilderness therapy offers teens the opportunity to form both peer bonds with other teens and mentor/mentee relationships with wilderness therapy staff. Since wilderness therapy takes place in a group setting, each struggling teen has the opportunity to bond with other teens who are going through similar struggles and facing the same obstacles through wilderness therapy. The group setting allows group development processes to facilitate learning.

In addition to the close bonds formed with other teens participating in therapy, wilderness therapy provides troubled teens the opportunity to form meaningful relationships with positive role models in the form of wilderness therapy guides and counselors.

"My life is amazing. Aspiro has changed everything. I now know how to climb every mountain. Thank you Aspiro for making me realize so much about my life and how to deal with anger."

– Brian, a former student at Aspiro

Allowing Teens to Experience Natural Consequences

Another aspect of Wilderness Therapy that makes treatment so effective is exposing teens to natural and logical imposed consequences. Recognizing and experiencing the natural consequences and logical imposed consequences have a great impact on developing intrinsic motivation. Teens must understand how the consequence relates to their actions for this to develop. An effective wilderness therapy program should help students understand the connection between their choices and consequences; cause and effect.

As such, it is vital for wilderness therapy programs to utilize natural and logical consequences. These facilitate intrinsic change and greater insight for self-governance. Programs for troubled teens should allow, as long as it is not a safety risk, the natural consequences of a student’s choice to occur.

A natural consequence is a direct result of a choice, without any imposed consequence. For example, if a student chooses to not build a shelter when the staff tell them it is going to rain, the consequence is they and their belongings get wet.

At times, logical consequences may be necessary to impose, if it makes sense for the offense. For example, a group’s members are dawdling when it is time to pack up camp in the morning, causing them to get out of camp late; a logical consequence is the group wakes up earlier to allow for the group to get out of camp by the set time.

Offering Adventure Activities to Challenge Teens

Some wilderness therapy programs offer an added component of adventure activities to their therapeutic offerings. By participating in adventure activities, such as rock climbing, rafting, or mountain biking, teenagers in wilderness therapy programs can see that they have the ability to adapt and thrive while overcoming new challenges. This fosters a strong form of self confidence in teenagers.

By focusing on adventures and emphasizing skill building, wilderness therapy programs which offer the added component of adventure help to develop personal strengths and promote self-efficacy within each teen. Building on each individual’s strengths, rather than simply treating symptoms, promotes long-term success for each teen in crisis.

The added component of adventure and the variety of appealing activities in wilderness adventure therapy also leads to an increased buy-in to therapy from teens who may be unreceptive to or apathetic about more traditional, behavioral therapy methods.

What to Look for in a Reputable Wilderness Therapy Program

While there are a plethora of “wilderness experience programs” and wilderness camps out there, there are characteristics that make a wilderness therapy program a truly therapeutic experience. There are several characteristics and processes that a credible wilderness therapy program should implement to ensure that they are following best practices within the industry.

1. Licensure/Accreditations

A reputable wilderness therapy program should obtain state licensure. Individual and group therapy sessions should be lead by a licensed mental health professional. In addition, to implement and maintain clinical best practices, and to maintain the integrity of the wilderness lands they use, reputable organizations partner with applicable regulatory and accrediting organizations.

If the organization offers school credits to their participants, the wilderness therapy program should be accredited by an academic organization to ensure that the credits are transferable.

2. Medical Care

A credible wilderness therapy program conducts a medical examination upon admission, and routine medical check-ups to monitor participants’ well-being.

3. Formal Evaluation

A credible wilderness therapy program should evaluate their clients upon admission; routine formal evaluations of the effectiveness of the treatment path should also be conducted periodically to ensure that the treatment is effective.

4. Adequate, Expert Supervision

The wilderness therapy field guides should operate under the supervision of a licensed mental health practitioner or clinical social worker. In addition, wilderness therapy program participants should have individual or group therapy sessions with a licensed therapist.

5. Family Involvement

A reputable wilderness therapy program involves the family in the healing process since families are vital to the process of change that takes place. With both student and parents on the same path, the entire family begins to heal. The wilderness therapy program should work with the family to help them understand each participant’s issues, goals, and treatment path.

6. Specialized Training

All wilderness therapy field guides should be trained and certified in CPR, first aid, and first responder certification. In addition, therapists should be trained in their area of expertise or specialty (i.e. substance abuse treatment, depression and anxiety treatment, family therapy etc.)

7. Individualized Treatment Plans

At a reputable wilderness therapy program, all clients should receive an individualized treatment plan based on their personal needs, goals, and issues. The individualized plans should be carefully monitored by a licensed mental health professional.

8. After Care and Transitional Support

Progress doesn’t stop the day a client leaves treatment. As such, therapeutic staff members should ensure that the teen has a smooth transition back into the “real world.” In addition, the family and the client should receive adequate aftercare services to ensure that the progress made during treatment is a lasting change.

9. Clinical Model

While every teen should receive an individualized treatment plan, a reputable wilderness therapy program should have a clearly defined clinical model that is based on mental health field best practices.

Conclusion

Helping your son or daughter transition into a successful, happy, well-balanced adult means being there for him or her during the difficult teenaged years. While it may be tempting to send your troubled teen to a teen boot camp as a quick-fix remedy for their undesirable behavior, it is vital to think about what is in the best interest of your son or daughter.

Keep in mind that the undesirable behavior your teen is displaying may be just a symptom of a more serious issue that needs to be addressed therapeutically. In order to promote a life-long change in your teen, it is important to select a treatment program that is reputable, credible, and effective in addressing your teen’s individual issues.

Resources

Additional Resources

For additional resources on helping your child, please visit our website’s resource section: https://aspiroadventure.com/family-resources/

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

Aspiro’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

At Aspiro Adventure, we focus on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various emotional, behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

About the Author

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Healing PTSD in Teens and Young Adults

Healing PTSD in Teens and Young Adults | Aspiro Adventure Therapy

This article discusses trauma in adolescence related to abuse, unhealthy relationships, violence, bullying, and the effects of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD in teens and young adults. We will then share steps parents can take to help their son or daughter as well as professional treatment options.

This white paper is written for adolescents who have experienced a trauma, their parents or caregivers, counselors, and anyone seeking help for PTSD in teens and young adults.

Find Lasting Recovery for Trauma in Teens and Young Adults

The adolescent years can be a very difficult time for teenagers, young adults, and their parents. These years are filled with high levels of stress due to the demands at school, changing friendships, developing interests, and self-identity. The stress and emotional drain that comes with adolescence are only compounded when a teen or young adult faces a traumatic event or experience.

A traumatic event is considered to be any event that causes physical, emotional, spiritual, or psychological harm to an individual, resulting in the teen feeling threatened or frightened.

Experiencing a traumatic event is often so overwhelming for a teen or young adult that it causes them to shut down completely. Watching their teen become unable to keep up with life’s daily demands is heartbreaking for any parent to see. Because most teens and young adults who experience trauma are emotionally unequipped to handle such trauma, parents must step up and provide the needed help.

With the proper supports in place, teens facing trauma can experience true healing and lasting peace. These teens and young adults can emerge stronger and even more resilient than before.

The Prevalence of Trauma in Today’s Teens and Young Adults

It is not uncommon for teens to face trauma during their adolescent years. Several recent studies show that PTSD in teens is becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States. The National Survey of Children’s Exposure reported that 18.7% of teenage girls have experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault in their lifetime. A second national study asked over 4000 teens aged 12-17 if they had ever experienced sexual or physical assault or if they had witnessed violence. The study found that 47% of these teens had experienced either sexual or physical assault or witnessed violence (Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormond, R., & Hamby. S. Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth.)

While many teens today may experience a traumatic incident, the situation and source of trauma is different for every individual. It’s important for parents to learn and examine the different causes, reactions, and treatment options so they can provide their teen with the absolute best help possible.

Sources of Trauma in Adolescence

Defining trauma in teens presents a very wide spectrum of causes and incidents at varying degrees. Every teen has different emotional capacities and will, therefore, respond to challenges and trauma differently. For example, some teens are extremely sensitive and become deeply upset when there is a local or national tragedy. These teens may also experience serious distress when a friend or family member faces trauma.

Other teens and young adults may experience trauma directly due to bullying, unhealthy social or romantic relationships, or changes in their family dynamic. Some more extreme examples of trauma in teens and young adults include situations of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse and the death of a loved one. When a teen or young adult experiences a serious traumatic incident that greatly affects their behavior and day-to-day functioning, that teen could be facing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD.

Common Causes of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

PTSD emerges when a normal response to stressful situations does not go away or becomes worse. Normal responses of traumatic events can include flashbacks, sleep problems, or increased anxiety. However, with PTSD, these symptoms become worse and do not dissipate over time. Common examples of experiences that could lead to PTSD in teens and young adults include:

  • Sexual abuse or violence
  • Physical abuse or neglect
  • Natural disasters
  • Plane or car accidents
  • Witnessing violence
  • Experiencing Violence
  • Having a friend commit suicide

Again, in some cases where a teen is a more sensitive individual, even learning about one of the above events can trigger some degree of PTSD.

Regardless of the cause or circumstance, any adolescent trauma most often results in the teen becoming avoidant in an attempt to numb their emotions. These individuals may also display more aggressive, rebellious, or impulsive behavior. The degree of PTSD symptoms often depends on the type and intensity of the event experienced. A teen or young adult is also more prone to develop PTSD if they are female, have any pre-existing or co-occurring disorders, had previous exposure to trauma, or if they lack a proper support system (The National Center of PTSD.) In the sections below, we will provide more insight into common risk factors and warning signs that your teen is facing trauma and could be suffering from PTSD.

Common Reactions After a Traumatic Event

Everyone reacts differently to trauma. Some teens and young adults are more resilient while others are more sensitive. Therefore, the spectrum of reactions is rather large and can include anything from anxiety and major depression to withdrawal or anger and hostility. Some young adults and teens with PTSD may shut-down emotionally and numb themselves while others may respond with self-destructive behavior.

In addition, The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry reported a number of mental health disorders can come as a result of trauma including major depression, substance use disorder, anxiety disorders, and conduct disorder such as oppositional defiant disorder.

Other trauma reactions include difficulties in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships or poor academic performance. This is often due to a lack of motivation caused by depression or because they are choosing to act out. While the above behaviors are common trauma reactions of teens and young adults, there are many additional warning signs that could indicate your child has developed PTSD.

20 PTSD Symptoms & Signs Your Teen or Young Adult Has Experienced Trauma

Regardless of the severity of a teen’s reaction, parents must be sensitive to the high level of stress their teen is facing and respond accordingly. If you think your teen could be facing trauma, here are 20 common signs of teens struggling with PTSD.

  • Change in sleeping habits
  • Socially withdrawn from friends and family
  • Overreacts about small things
  • Depression
  • Emotional numbness
  • Poor academic performance
  • Sudden change in behavior
  • Loss of interest in friends and hobbies
  • Detached from daily routines and activities
  • Difficulties with concentration and focusing
  • Displays signs of constant worrying
  • Becomes rebellious
  • Substance abuse
  • Changes in eating habits
  • Isolates him or herself
  • Overly anxious
  • Displays angry or aggressive behaviors
  • Fatigue or exhaustion
  • Panic attacks
  • Constant fear or worrying
  • Nausea, frequent headaches, or vomiting

Change in your teen’s or young adult’s behavior could indicate that your son or daughter is struggling and needs additional support. The best place to start this process is in the home.

Tips for Parents of Teens and Young Adults Facing Trauma

Studies have shown that proper support from parents can help lower levels of PTSD in teens. However, many young adult children and teens do not turn to their parents in times of trauma which makes it absolutely essential for parents to be aware of changes in their child’s behavior, recognize the signs of PTSD, and take the first step towards recovery. There are many things parents can do to help their son or daughter suffering from PTSD including encouraging open communication and by being patient with your teen.

1. Communicate with Your Teen or Young Adult

Remember, your teen or young adult may be so upset by the event that they are emotionally unequipped to talk and process the event out loud. They may feel embarrassed, ashamed, or guilty about the event. Other teens feel they need to be “strong” for their parents or do not even want to acknowledge the event by talking about it. Therefore, it’s important for parents to come to their teen with an empathetic and loving attitude. Let your teen know that you love them unconditionally and that their emotions are valid. Many teens do not come to their parents with their problems because they do not want to be lectured or told what to do. In these types of sensitive situations, approach them with a loving heart and listening ear.

2. Be Flexible in Your Expectations for Your Child

During times of trauma, it’s important that you do not expect your teen or young adult to perform and behave to the capacity they have before. Parents must be flexible when it comes to their expectations and also in adapting their daily responsibilities. Parents should not enable their teen or young adult by alleviating all of their responsibilities but should find a reasonable balance that respects the emotions they are facing. If your teen or young adult is struggling to complete tasks and assignments, validate their emotions and let them know it is completely normal and healthy for them to feel an emotional drain after an upsetting or frightening event. When you sense your daughter or son feels exhausted, encourage them to rest. It may also be helpful to inform your child’s school and teachers of the event so they are aware of what happened and the changes in your son or daughter’s behavior.

3. Be Patient with Your Son or Daughter Facing Trauma

It’s key for parents to be patient with the many emotions a teen faces while in a state of trauma. As a result, your teen or young adult may become very withdrawn, tired, and may come across as careless, lazy, or difficult. It is also common for adolescents in crisis to become rebellious as a way to take control of their lives and let out their strong emotions. They may become so angry about what happened to them that they blame you or their friends for the event. While their behavior may seem irrational or unhealthy, it’s important for parents to be patient and try to understand this is their way of coping. The more a parent tries to controls their teen or young adult, the worse their child may respond to the trauma and the more unsafe they may feel. Try to understand they are in the midst of a healing process.

4. Be Proactive and Direct

The worst thing a parent can do for teens and young adults with PTSD is to ignore or avoid the traumatic event. Whether the trauma is big or small, parents should create a safe place for their son or daughter to talk about and process any upsetting event. Parents should not be afraid to even bring up trauma and events start the discussion. Doing so will communicate to your teen or young adult that these topics are safe to talk about.

When parents have laid all of these supports and put these strategies in place and their teen or young adult still continues to show serious symptoms of PTSD, it may be time for parents to be proactive and seek professional help.

PTSD in Teens and Young Adults: When to Seek Professional Help

Sometimes the aftermath of a traumatic event or experience becomes too much for a parent to handle. The following 5 signs indicate it is time to seek help from mental health professionals:

  • Your son or daughter’s behavior is reckless and harmful to themselves or others
  • They’re struggling from severe depression or anxiety
  • They start abusing drugs or alcohol
  • They do not communicate with you at all about their life
  • They don’t show any signs of healing or recovery

These signs and behaviors cannot be ignored. Do not let a traumatic event affect your child’s life and long-term happiness. Getting the proper treatment for your teen today sets them up for a better tomorrow.

Wilderness Therapy for PTSD

A credible wilderness adventure therapy program utilizes a research-based model for treating PTSD that encourages outcomes of increased self-confidence, healthy relationships, identity development, and improved coping skills. A credible wilderness therapy program, such as Aspiro Adventure, gives traumatized teens and young adults a safe and novel environment to heal. Such programs also provide these emerging adults with a loving and caring therapeutic staff, a variety of adventure activities, and a research-backed approach that promotes lasting change.

Wilderness Therapy Provides a Safe and Novel Environment for Teens & Young Adults to Heal

A credible wilderness therapy program provides people with PTSD with a safe and controlled environment that promotes growth and healing. This novel environment takes a teen away from the distractions and complications of adolescent life and allows the teen to reset and recognize their own strength. If a teen or young adult rebels after a traumatic incident, a new and novel setting is especially helpful in encouraging a teen to leave unhealthy patterns behind and develop new behaviors. Additionally, wilderness therapy programs utilize the healing effect of the outdoors to promote recovery and growth.

Wilderness Therapy Builds Confidence in Teens Through Adventure Activities

The adventure activities in a wilderness therapy program are extremely effective when helping teens and young adults with traumatic stress. These adventure activities teach teens that they can overcome hard things through hands-on experience. When a teen is faced with a challenge that is difficult at the start, such as hiking or rock-climbing, they build confidence in their abilities once they complete the task. Overcoming such physical boundaries not only contributes to their physical health but also teaches them they can surmount difficult odds. In turn, their self-esteem and confidence in their own abilities to overcome challenges is greatly improved.

Wilderness Therapy Provides Teens Facing Trauma with Individualized Care

As teens and young adults complete various activities, credible wilderness therapy programs will have trained and experienced therapists on staff who give them verbal encouragement and validation along the way. These program facilitators are always there to guide the healing process as these teens and young adults talk about their traumatic experiences. This process helps teens and young adults with PTSD internalize what they have learned.

A credible wilderness therapy program will also combine both group and individual therapy to provide students with a variety of settings to talk about what they learned and to generalize their skills. The clinical team and field staff of a credible wilderness therapy program will always meet the student where they are and provide them with a personalized treatment and therapy plan.

Wilderness Therapy Focuses on Lasting Recovery for Teens Facing Trauma

A credible wilderness therapy program will focus on creating lasting peace for teens and young adults recovering from trauma. By combining traditional therapy methods like Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (EMDR) and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) with adventure activities, wilderness therapy focuses on building teens’ strengths and building their positive attributes. Aspiro Adventure’s researched-backed approach is based on Martin Seligman’s work in the field of positive psychology that is based on doing what makes people happy and healthy, as opposed to what makes them anxious or depressed. Aspiro focuses on skill-building, personal strengths, and self-efficacy to promote long-term outcomes rather than just talking out and processing the traumatic event.

No matter what kind of PTSD treatment program you select for your traumatized child, doing your research is vital in selecting the best treatment center for your son or daughter. A reputable treatment program will help provide resources, client testimonials, and research. Whether you choose a more traditional form of therapy or an individualized form of therapy like wilderness therapy, it’s important you are making an informed decision.

Conclusion

A traumatic event can cause a teen or young adult to experience extreme amounts of emotional, physical, and psychological stress. Teens and young adults who have experienced trauma may struggle to open up as they process and come to terms with the event. They may worry about how and why the event happened, their involvement in the event, and how it changed them. Parents of teens and young adults facing trauma can help by being patient and understanding with their son or daughter.

While there are many steps parents can take to help their teen or young adult heal from trauma, some circumstances require more intensive treatment for PTSD. A credible wilderness adventure therapy program, such as Aspiro Adventure, offers teens an individualized and evidence-based treatment plan in a safe environment. With the proper support and care, teens facing trauma can heal and develop greater confidence in themselves and in the future.

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy

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Aspiro Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

By Josh Watson, LCSW, CMO at Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program
  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

The Best ADHD Treatment Programs for Teens & Young Adults

The best adhd treatment Programs for Teenagers and Young Adults | Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

ADHD is not an uncommon struggle in today’s society; approximately 11% of children 4-17 years of age (6.4 million) have a diagnosis of ADHD as of 2011. While many people associate ADHD as a childhood disorder, many individuals struggle through their teenage years, well into, or throughout, adulthood. Today, about 4 percent of American adults over the age of 18 deal with ADHD on a daily basis.

The neurodevelopmental disorder presents individuals with significant hurdles in life, such as executive functioning deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness. That being said, a psychological diagnosis does not have to define the course of someone’s life. ADHD has particularly manageable symptoms, and when treated properly, does not have to get in the way of your child’s success.

Nevertheless, it is crucial to address mental health and developmental issues as they arise. We have seen the cost of delaying treatment or avoiding one’s issues; it is vastly wiser to handle problems head-on, as early as possible.

ADHD Symptoms in Teens and Young Adults

Some kids with ADHD are diagnosed as very young children; symptoms such as impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and inattention are usually symptoms parents and teachers pick up on quickly. However, ADHD goes overlooked and undiagnosed in many children, as not everyone displays these symptoms in a disruptive way. For example, some children who sit back, quietly daydreaming in class are overlooked.

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The DSM-V now classifies Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder into predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD and predominantly Inattentive ADHD; some individuals display traits of both, known as ADHD Combined Type. According to the DSM-V, the individual’s symptoms must be “present in multiple settings (e.g., school and home), that can result in performance issues in social, educational, or work settings.”

Hyperactive-Impulsive ADHD Symptoms:

  • Often fidgets, squirms, taps feet or hands, etc.
  • Running or climbing in inappropriate situations
  • Difficulties performing quiet tasks/activities
  • Difficulty waiting in lines
  • Interrupting others
  • Restless feeling
  • Excessive talking
  • Blurting out answers before hearing the entire question

Inattentive ADHD Symptoms:

  • Not paying close attention to schoolwork or making careless mistakes
  • Difficulties sustaining attention for tasks
  • Does not seem to listen when spoken to
  • Trouble with organization
  • Skipping from one uncompleted task to another
  • Missing deadlines
  • Disorganized schoolwork
  • Easily distracted by stimuli
  • Loses or forgets things necessary for completing school work (books, assignments, pencils, etc.)

This is often referred to as “ADD” by many laymen, including parents and teachers. The term “ADD” was used by professionals until the early 1990’s, when it was changed to ADHD. Although “ADD” it is not used in the DSM-V, the term is still widely used outside of the mental health and healthcare communities. These can often be the “daydreamers” whose symptoms are overlooked.

The Facts About ADHD in Teenagers and Young Adults | Aspiro Adventure Therapy

ADHD Combined Type:

Individuals who display symptoms of both predominantly inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive are diagnosed with combined type ADHD. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, this is the most common type of ADHD.

If you notice these symptoms of ADHD, speak to his or her teachers, counselors, and/or coaches to see if they have noticed any similar symptoms. If you suspect your child has ADHD, talking to his or her physician to confirm the ADHD diagnosis is a logical next step to ensuring your child’s long-term recovery.

ADHD and Anxiety/Depression

It is not uncommon for teens and young adults who have been diagnosed with ADHD to struggle with anxiety or depression. In fact, up to 30% of children and 25%-40% of adults with ADHD have a coexisting anxiety disorder.

Another common coexisting condition for individuals with ADHD is depression; according to the National Resource Center on ADHD, “up to 70 percent of those with ADHD will be treated for depression at some point in their lives.” The incidence of ADHD and depression in children is attributed to the fact that, individuals with ADHD can become frustrated and overwhelmed by their symptoms, and “may develop feelings of a lack of control over what happens in their environment or become depressed as they experience repeated failures or negative interactions in school, at home, and in other settings. As these negative experiences accumulate, the child with ADHD may begin to feel discouraged.”

"up to 30% of children and 53% of adults with ADHD have a coexisting anxiety disorder."

National Resource Center on ADHD Tweet

"up to 70% of those with ADHD will be treated for depression at some point in their lives."

National Resource Center on ADHD Tweet

Since ADHD symptoms are sometimes congruent with symptoms of depression and anxiety, many young people’s depression or anxiety gets overlooked. For example, strained peer relationships, decreased school performance/motivation, and an inability to focus can be symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, or depression.

When a young person has two coexisting conditions, their treatment path becomes a bit more complicated. For example, children with anxiety and ADHD appear to be less responsive to traditional ADHD medication treatments; in addition, there are some anti-depressants that are not approved for children under 18.

While not every adolescent or young adult with ADHD will experience emotional turmoil, disregarding their symptoms as being part of their ADHD will allow anxiety and/or depression to go unresolved. Knowing that your child is at-risk for a coexisting condition makes it easier to watch out for signs of anxiety or depression in your child.

Early intervention is critical in helping teens and young adults learn to cope with their symptoms. If you notice symptoms of depression or anxiety in your child who has ADHD, don’t hesitate to reach out to your child’s physician or mental healthcare provider. If you suspect that your child has a coexisting condition with their ADHD, it is vital to find a mental healthcare provider who is well versed in treating not only ADHD but anxiety and/or depression to ensure that your son or daughter receives safe and effective treatment.

ADHD and Family Conflict

Having a child with ADHD can be stressful for the entire family, and can strain relationships, as these families often experience a more behavioral and emotional strain. Living with ADHD symptoms can be extremely difficult; impulsivity, difficulties with their social skills and interactions, in addition to a difficulty managing anger; this can cause an additional strain on the family dynamic. In fact, teens with ADHD report having more parent-teen conflict that teens who do not have ADHD.

Parents of kids with ADHD are three times as likely to separate or divorce as parents of non- ADHD children. There are many contributing factors: parents may disagree on treatment routes/ plans, medications, therapists, etc. In addition, the added stress of parenting a child struggling with ADHD can be overwhelming for parents.

In addition to creating parent-child conflict in the family dynamic, it may cause resentment, jealousy, or tension between siblings as well. Because parents spend extra time managing medications, doctors appointments, school meetings, and/or behavioral therapy sessions, some siblings may resent extra time/attention their sibling with ADHD receives.

The best way for parents to help is to implement a routine and clear rules for all individuals living in the household. In addition, staying positive and focusing on your child’s strengths will encourage more positive behavior. When you do need to give your child a correction, remember to reprimand the child’s behavior– not the child. For example: instead of “You make me so mad when you interrupt me!” try, “It makes me unhappy when you interrupt me, please wait your turn.”

ADHD and School Troubles

While some people with ADHD also struggle with depression and/or anxiety, other individuals may have an undiagnosed learning disability. Learning disabilities often coincide with ADHD; in fact, an estimated 20 to 30 percent of children with ADHD are diagnosed with a learning disability.

While ADHD is not considered a learning disability, one of the symptoms of ADHD is having academic difficulties, due to an inability to focus. Due to the assumption that it is their ADHD causing the school challenges, some children who have a learning disability coinciding with ADHD will never have their learning disability diagnosed.

When children are having difficulties at school, parents are often the first to notice. If you suspect your child’s academic struggles may be stemming from a learning disability, it is important to notify his or her teacher and your family physician.

A learning disability is a lifelong obstacle; while children don’t “grow out of it,” they can learn skills to compensate for their learning differences. Early recognition, diagnosis, and getting proper help early on is key to your son or daughter’s academic success.

If your child is diagnosed with a learning disability, he or she may be eligible for special education services under one of three federal statutes. It is vital that, as a parent, you are an advocate for your son or daughter. In order to become an effective advocate for your son or daughter, you should become informed about their rights under the law and ways to help him or her succeed in school.

Even if your son or daughter is not diagnosed with a learning disability, your child may still be eligible for special services (like ADHD coaching and tutoring), accommodations or modifications to the curriculum or coursework, depending on the severity of his or her ADHD symptoms. If your son or daughter is still struggling in school, talk to his or her teacher about ways you can help at home.

Untreated ADHD and At-Risk Teens

As teens get older and make their first forays into more adult privileges and responsibilities, there is also a higher (2x-4x) risk for car accidents among teens with ADHD. This, in addition to the increased propensity for substance abuse, waning academic performance, and the difficulty maintaining relationships can make adolescence much more of a struggle than it needs to be.Part of the higher risk of risky behavior, according to ADDitude Mag, is the fact that “The rate of emotional development for children with ADHD is 30% slower than their non-ADD peers. For example, a 10-year-old with ADHD operates at the maturity level of about a 7-year-old; a 16-year-old beginning driver is using the decision-making skills of an 11-year-old.” The good news is that teen drivers with ADHD who take their medication are less likely to have an accidentThese problematic behavioral patterns can result from the exacerbation of the fact that individuals with ADHD may be more:
  • Impulsive
  • Risk-taking
  • Immature in judgment
  • Thrill-seeking
  • Distracted
Fortunately, these symptoms – and the increased risk for car accidents and substance abuse – can be mitigated by early intervention and by ensuring that individuals receive effective treatment based on their individual needs, strengths, and challenges. Addressing these issues is critical not only because it will make the journey through adolescence easier for your teen with ADHD, but because the treatment that an individual receives in childhood and adolescence is often predictive of their success as an adult.

ADHD Treatment Options

While some individuals may “outgrow” or be able to overcome their symptoms, others may need counseling, neurofeedback, medication, or wellness and lifestyle changes to help treat ADHD. Depending on the individual’s age, diagnosis, and response to treatment, the treatment plan may include any combination of the following:

ADHD Medication

Stimulants are the most popular form of medication prescribed for ADD/ADHD. Stimulants like methylphenidate can alleviate symptoms such as inability to focus, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Some individuals may not be helped by stimulants and may be treated with non-stimulant medication to help mitigate symptoms. These non-stimulant drugs come without many of the side effects of stimulants, including anxiety, irritability, high blood pressure, and insomnia.

Behavioral Therapy

It is helpful for individuals with ADHD to set up a structured schedule and routine. Behavior therapy can also help teens and young adults address any academic, social, or emotional struggles they may be facing. While talk therapy and behavioral interventions can address these challenges, they are only truly effective if:

    1. your child is invested 100% and
    2. you coordinate with your child’s therapists and teachers to help keep your child on track.

Parent Education

Parental support and participation plays a pivotal role in the success of treatment for ADHD. Taking the time to understand what your child is going through, and work with your child’s therapist to help establish a structure and routine for your child, can show your child you care, and are supportive of his or her treatment path.

ADHD Treatment Programs

Sometimes, even with all the talk therapy, medication and parental support in the world, it just isn’t enough. This is especially true when young people are battling ADHD along with depression, anxiety, oppositional defiant disorder, or a family conflict. Although it may not be the easy choice, sometimes sending your child to an evidence-based treatment program can be the best choice to help him or her learn to cope with their symptoms.

While there are many options to help individuals cope with their symptoms, there is no magic “cure” for ADHD; however, with the proper treatment and support team, children with ADHD can grow into successful and well adjusted young adults.

4 Ways to Support Your ADHD Child at Home

Struggling with the symptoms of ADHD while going through adolescence or the transition to adulthood can be tough. Knowing you are there for them can help. While no one ever wants to send their child off to treatment, sometimes doing the right thing isn’t always easy. Helping your child feel loved, supported, and respected during their treatment is vital to his or her success.

Knowing how to support your loved one in a helpful way during their treatment for ADHD can be difficult, but as they feel your encouragement and faith in their ability to overcome their challenges and your trust in their treatment team, your child’s hope for a different life can be strengthened. Learning as much as you can from your child about what the struggle has been like for them can help them feel your support.

1. Learn More about ADHD

Find out as much as you can about ADHD and any other diagnoses your child receives. Research, read, and learn from the many resources available on ADHD, from blog posts, podcasts and videos, to eBooks. Attend a class or support group for caregivers of children with ADHD.

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Understanding his or her struggle is the first step in helping them overcome their obstacles. Learn about what kinds of tasks will be difficult for your son or daughter, and what resources are available to aid him or her in overcoming those obstacles.

2. Foster a Healthy Lifestyle

Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and maintaining healthy sleep hygiene are all part of maintaining your children’s health.

  • Diet/Nutrition: Some researchers argue that a restricted diet can actually help improve ADHD symptoms. Others argue that all children can benefit from a healthy, well- balanced diet. Encourage your child to make healthy food choices. Eating several smaller meals throughout the day can minimize blood sugar & blood pressure spikes and keep his or her energy up.
  • Healthy Sleep Hygiene: Many individuals with ADHD have difficulties sleeping due to the medication(s) they are taking; however, maintaining healthy sleep hygiene is critical to feeling balanced and well-rested. Teenagers need at least 8 1/2 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Helping your son or daughter maintain a sleep schedule, discouraging tv or electronics in bed, and restricting sugar and caffeine in the evenings can all help.
  • Exercise: Since some of the major symptoms of ADHD are restless behavior, fidgeting, and impulsivity, regular exercise can be helpful in coping with or minimizing symptoms. Encourage your son or daughter to live an active lifestyle; better yet, make it a family affair. It can be as simple as walking the dog each day after dinner or playing basketball in the driveway.
  • Set a Schedule for Medication Management: Some medications for ADHD need to be taken on a schedule, some should be taken with food, and some on an empty stomach. Make sure your son or daughter is being diligent about sticking to their schedule and taking their medications at the appropriate times.

3. Encourage a Positive Peer Environment

Encourage your son or daughter to hang out with uplifting and encouraging friends who are positive influences. Many individuals with ADHD struggle with social skills, relating to others, forming meaningful relationships, and making friends. If he or she has difficulties making friends who are positive, uplifting people, offer to enroll him or her is a social activity that he or she would enjoy, such as an art class, sports team, or after school club. It is also vital to watch out for negative influences or a sudden change in peer groups, as these could be detrimental to his or her progress.

4. Get Involved with the Treatment Process

As a parent and caregiver, you are a part of the treatment team, along with your child and professionals. Meet with treatment professionals to understand their recommendations, ways you can help and openly discuss any concerns. Encourage the collaboration of professionals by giving permission for each to speak and requesting they do so. If appropriate, join your child’s therapy session or have a family therapy session to learn how you can support your child. Monitor his or her medication and ensure that he or she attends therapy. Be sure to notify your child’s healthcare provider or mental health professional if his or her ADHD symptoms do not improve or if they increase.

Knowing When to Seek ADHD Treatment

ADHD can affect individuals in a variety of ways; some people with ADHD grow out of the disorder in adolescence. Many will continue to struggle with the condition throughout adulthood. While the symptoms of ADHD in adolescents are similar to the symptoms in children, they often worsen during teenage years due to the hormonal shifts of puberty. Impulsive, irritable, overactive children who have difficulty focusing can evolve into teens who may display a number of issues.

Sometimes talk therapy and medication is not enough to help teens and young adults cope with their symptoms, especially when there are other diagnoses, including: anxiety, depression, a learning disorder, or a behavioral disorder. If your teen’s symptoms go beyond typical struggles with ADHD and borders on risky or violent behavior, it is time to consider seeking more intensive treatment.

The following are red flag signs of that your child needs treatment:

    • Not taking/refusing their medications
    • Reckless driving
    • Drug or Alcohol abuse
    • Aggressive behavior
    • Risky sexual behavior
    • Depression/moodiness
    • Anxiety symptoms

If you do decide to seek treatment for your son or daughter, make sure that an effective course of treatment is pursued. Everyone has different needs, and each individual with ADHD will respond differently to a variety of treatments. One way to address these issues is through wilderness therapy; allowing for engagement in various experiential activities to learn to manage their ADHD and while receiving clinical treatment. For many individuals, ADHD programs are the right choice.

How Wilderness Therapy Helps with ADHD

A psychological diagnosis does not have to define the course of someone’s life. ADHD has particularly manageable symptoms, and when treated properly, does not have to get in the way of an individual’s success. That said, it is crucial to address behavioral health, mental health, and developmental issues as they arise. We have seen the cost of delaying treatment of ADHD or avoiding one’s issues; it is vastly wiser to handle problems head-on, as early as possible.

There are a variety of treatment options available for individuals who have ADHD. Every individual is different; depending on your child’s age and severity of their symptoms, you may be considering medication alone, medication and behavior therapy, or in more severe cases, an ADHD treatment program. One type of treatment program that has proven extremely effective in helping individuals with ADHD is wilderness therapy. The effectiveness of wilderness therapy in helping these individuals is due to the therapeutic wilderness setting, adventure activities, and positive peer relationships.

Wilderness Setting

Living in the wilderness is an unfamiliar environment and experience for many individuals with ADHD. This allows them to leave the pressure and stress of their everyday lives behind and practice new ways of handling the ADHD. Wilderness therapy programs move with the rhythms of the natural world, which is soothing to humans. According to Taniguchi, Widmer, Duerden, & Draper (2009): the mere presence of nature and vegetation has significant positive effects on children’s:

    • Self-discipline
    • Attentional functioning
    • Stress resilience
    • Engagement in creative play

The wilderness setting also exposes teens to natural consequences. Recognizing and experiencing natural consequences has a great impact on developing intrinsic motivation. Teens and young adults with ADD/ADHD must understand how the consequence relates to their actions for this to develop. For example, if a student chooses to not build a shelter when the staff tells them it is going to rain, the consequence is they, and their belongings, get wet.

Adventure Activities

Some wilderness therapy programs incorporate adventure therapy activities. This allows for a more comprehensive assessment in multiple settings and with different challenges, of each student’s needs, deficits, and challenges. Adventure therapy utilizes a variety of novel environments to push teens and young adults to learn more effective coping skills, problem-solving skills, executive function skills, and social skills; these are skills that many individuals with ADHD need to improve.

Incorporating adventure therapy activities allows for In Vivo therapy. In Vivo therapy offers the ability for students with ADHD to operate and process what they are learning “in the moment.” The In Vivo method allows them to learn more experientially. This helps to teach individuals with attention and executive functioning deficits what they do not typically understand in a way that makes it more “normal,” and less like therapy.

Aside from an increased buy-in to participate in therapy due to the variety of appealing activities, the adventure therapy activities provide ADHD students with opportunities to confront their challenges. This also helps individuals with ADHD by utilizing overwhelming mastery experiences to increase self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the belief in oneself to overcome adversity/difficulties in life. This is vital, as research has shown self-efficacy as one of the most influential predictors of behavioral change. (Wells, Widmer, & McCoy 2004)

The more repetitive a treatment program can be with overwhelming mastery experiences, the better. Teens and young adults with ADD/ADHD are more likely to generalize the belief that they can achieve difficult things, and can incorporate this belief into different domains of life: classroom, peers, family, etc.

Positive Peer Relationships

Since many with ADHD have trouble forming meaningful peer relationships and struggle with their social skill deficits, the therapeutic group setting of wilderness therapy is extremely critical for treatment and social skills training.

Wilderness therapy offers individuals with ADHD the opportunity to form both peer bonds with others and mentor/mentee relationships with wilderness therapy staff. Since wilderness therapy takes place in a group setting, students have the opportunity to learn from others who are overcoming the same obstacles through wilderness therapy. The group setting allows group development processes to facilitate learning.

Aspiro Alumn Shares What the Wilderness Taught Him About ADHD

In this ten-minute TED Talk, Aspiro alumnus, David Rosen, talks about battling his monster: living with ADHD. In the video, he is brave, open and honest, discussing ADHD symptoms in teens and how to help a child with ADHD. He encourages compassion and acceptance when interacting with others– no matter what their particular monster is.

David also discusses his time in the wilderness at a program that is geared specifically to address the challenges of teens with ADHD. He describes his experience at Aspiro as the “greatest transformation of my life.” While he still lives with his monster on a daily basis, David knows how to deal with his ADHD symptoms and has a positive outlook on life.

Conclusion

Young people who receive treatment early are more responsive to treatment. Some individuals with ADHD will grow out of their symptoms, others will continue to grapple with the disorder throughout adulthood. While no parent ever wants to send their child away, it may be worth exploring wilderness therapy as a treatment option for ADHD. The disadvantages – absence from school, separation from family and friends – are short-term, but the benefits hold the potential to last a lifetime.

Statistically, adults with ADHD experience higher incidence of divorce, substance abuse, and unemployment. While this diagnosis does not have to be a life sentence, it is important to give adolescents affected by ADHD the tools to overcome their differences. If someone you care about has been diagnosed with ADHD, don’t let them become a statistic.

Additional Resources

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

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Aspiro Adventure offers safe, effective, and clinically-sophisticated options to treat ADHD in young adults and teenagers.

Aspiro Adventure’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

By Josh Watson, LCSW, CMO at Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program
  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Gender is a Spectrum: How to Support Students and Parents in Understanding the Complexity of Gender Expression and Identity.

Gender is a Spectrum: How to Support Students and Parents in Understanding the Complexity of Gender Expression and Identity | Aspiro Adventure Therapy

Our world has historically been built for those who identify as cisgender (a person whose sense of personal identity and gender corresponds with their birth sex). A cisgender person knows what soccer team to join, what section of a store to shop in, what toys or decorations to buy, and especially what bathroom to use. In our society, to question your gender identity is to suddenly be left stranded and confused. Clothes that outwardly appear to fit, make you feel like an imposter, signs that signal belonging no longer include you, and with all of these societal displacements come incredible amounts of fear and anxiety about not fitting in, about maintaining relationships with loved ones, and about how to stay safe in a world that may not understand or welcome you.

Parents and professionals, you have seen this struggle. You know these students are hurting and often wonder what the best course of action is to provide them with some support and understanding. Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program can help these adolescents and young adults on their journey toward self-acceptance and recognizes the importance of treatment that is specific to the needs of this population. Students are validated and supported by staff, therapists, and fellow students, wherever they may be in their process. Aspiro’s therapist Leigh Uhlenkott, is trained and certified in working with transgender youth, and her first-hand experience of guiding her own child through a gender identity journey provides Leigh with additional perspective, insight, and empathy, as she works with families and students.

Below, Leigh shares some helpful information for both parents and professionals.

What do we need to know about gender?

Often, we talk about “gender” in binary terms: you are either a boy or girl, depending on what sex organs you have. However, the term “gender” is more complicated than this. When we pick it apart, we begin to see the different ways in which we express who we are, rather than simply relying on our genitalia to do it for us.

We can break gender down into 4 key components:

  1. Gender Identity – an internal sense of our own gender, which may or may not be the same as our biological sex
  2. Gender Expression – how we dress, talk, or behave in order to show our gender
  3. Sexual Orientation – our sexual identity in relation to the gender to which we are attracted
  4. Biological Sex – the anatomy of an individual’s reproductive system

For example, two people could identify as a homosexual and identify as female, but one of these people could express their gender as more feminine, while the other could express themselves as more masculine, cutting their hair short and wearing traditionally male clothing.

Our students also fit in various places on this spectrum. For example, some of our students identify as males, while some who identify as females are more comfortable presenting as more masculine on the outside. Some students may be set in their identities and expressions while others may still be trying to figure out what their brains and bodies are telling them feels right.

While it can be clear from an outsider’s perspective that someone aligns more along the feminine or masculine spectrum, it is the person’s choice whether to disclose their gender identity. Some students may be “out and proud”, while others may be existing in “stealth”, where they don’t disclose any information about their sexual orientation or gender identity. As allies, we should not jump to conclusions about someone’s gender expression based solely off of looks or our assumptions.

We also need to be careful about who we disclose someone’s gender status to. According to GLAAD (Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation), coming out as a transgender person is different from coming out as someone who is expressing their sexual orientation; for the transgender population, they are transitioning into their true selves, and having to tell someone they are transgender can feel disempowering. Thus, when we have conversations with people about gender, we need to remember how sensitive this information is and respect the person’s right to privacy.

How can a parent support a student on their journey through gender exploration?

First and foremost, students have the right to expect unconditional love, kindness, and support. No matter your understanding or feelings about gender, putting a child’s mental and emotional well-being before your own judgments will help you repair and maintain a relationship with your child. Rather than coming at children with solutions or questions or anger, try to listen and understand what they are saying. Maybe we haven’t questioned our own gender identities, but certainly, we have all known what it feels like not to belong, to be misunderstood, or to feel alone. Start from a place of empathy and remember, supportive parenting is effective parenting.

Creating a home that is safe for discussions about gender is a great place to start when it comes to demonstrating the unconditional support that our students need. An exploration into our own experiences with gender and examining where our beliefs on gender came from can un-earth some wonderful insights that can fuel real change in our relationships with our children. Being aware of our pronoun use and using the pronouns our students use to identify themselves is another way to help bridge divides. Ultimately, however, be gentle with yourselves. We all make mistakes when it comes to talking with our kids about important truths; all we can do is educate ourselves as much as possible, own up when we slip up, and look to grow from these moments.

How can I process through my own misunderstanding / confusion about what my student is going through?

We all have a gender history. From the moment our parents knew we were boys or girls, our identities were molded by these labels. When we have discussions with our children about their changing identities, we bring our own gender stories with us into the conversation, for better or for worse. What do we do to understand and process through our own thoughts about gender, or through a conversation that may not have gone so well?

Journaling is a simple and effective tool for any parent to use when beginning to understand and support a child’s gender journey. Having a place to write down your fears and your learnings about gender can help make sense of the new information you are taking in. Journaling can also give you as a parent the space you need to review your judgments and preconceptions in a neutral space, without the emotional attachments a face-to-face conversation can carry.

In addition, there are many parents who are asking and struggling with the same questions you are. Find your community through local Pride chapters or PFLAG groups; there are also conferences you can attend to get more information to bring back to your family. These organizations can give you the support you need to begin to put the pieces of the puzzle together.

What resources exist for me to gain better insight into gender?

We grew up in a time when gender was about whether you were a boy or a girl. Since our definitions of gender are evolving, there is a whole host of information out there to help support your conversations with your child about gender. For a comprehensive list of resources, please see the lists below:

Books:

Websites:

Camps

  • Camp Aranu’tiq-Transgender Youth Located: New Hampshire and California Founded 2009
    (Summer Camps for youth, teens, and families)
  • Gender Odyssey –  a summer camp for 14-18 

Conferences

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program​

Aspiro Adventure offers safe, effective, and clinically-sophisticated treatment options for adolescents and young adults with struggles related to gender expression and gender identity struggles.

Aspiro Adventure’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

By Leigh Uhlenkott, NCC, LMHC
  • Leigh Uhlenkott, NCC, LMHC
    Leigh Uhlenkott, NCC, LMHC
    Adolescent & Young Adult Males and Females, Ages 13-26

How to Navigate Learning Disabilities in Teenagers & Young Adults

Learning Disability in Teenager and Young Adults | Aspiro Wilderness Therapy Program

This article is written for parents, teachers, school counselors, or anyone needing advice or help navigating learning disabilities in teenagers and young adults.

In this article, we discuss:

We focus on helping adolescents and young adults through a variety of struggles, including, but not limited to learning disorders and any mental health or self-esteem issues that may arise from them.

Helping You Help Your Child

​When children are having difficulties in school, parents are often the first to notice; however, knowing what to do, where to start, and where to find help can be confusing and overwhelming for many parents. If you suspect that your son or daughter has a learning disability, early recognition and diagnosis is key to getting your child the help he or she needs.

Learning disabilities are more prevalent than many think. According to the U.S. Survey of Income and Program Participation, an estimated 4.67 million Americans ages six and older have a learning disability. However, only 2.4 million students are diagnosed with specific learning disabilities, and receive services, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. This means there are millions of students with undiagnosed learning disabilities.

As your child’s advocate, it is vital that your son or daughter receives help early-on to develop the skills needed to learn based on their strengths and way of learning. Recognizing, accepting, and understanding your son or daughter’s learning disability are the first steps to ensuring your child’s success.

Learning Disabilities in Teenagers and Young Adults Infographic | Aspiro Wilderness Therapy Program

What Is a Learning Disability?

A learning disability is a neurologically-based processing problem that may impair an individual’s ability to listen, think, speak, write, read, spell, and do math. In addition to interfering with basic learning skills, a learning disability may also interfere with higher level learning skills, including organization, long or short-term memory, attention, impulsivity and time management.

A learning disability is not a learning problem stemming from visual, hearing, or motor deficits. Learning disabilities however often coincide with other neurological disorders, such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

Learning disabilities often run in families, as they can have a genetic component. A learning disability is a lifelong obstacle; while children don’t “grow out of it,” they can learn skills to compensate for their learning disability. Early recognition, diagnosis, and getting proper help early on is key to your son or daughter’s academic success.

Types of Learning Disabilities:

Dyslexia – dyslexia is a learning disability that impacts a person’s ability to learn to read and interpret words, letters and other symbols. Because dyslexia affects reading comprehension, it is colloquially called a reading disability or reading disorder. Dyslexia is by far the most common type of learning disability affecting between 5% – 17% of students in the United States.

Dyscalculia – dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects a person’s ability to learn math facts, understand numbers, make calculations, and solve math problems. It is estimated that dyscalculia affects between 5% – 7% of students in the U.S.

Dysgraphia – dysgraphia is a learning disability that impacts a person’s fine motor skills and affects writing skills like handwriting, typing, and spelling. It is estimated that dysgraphia affects between 7% – 15% of students.

Processing Disorder – a processing disorder occurs when a person isn’t able to use all of the data collected by the senses.

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) – students with auditory processing struggles can’t process what they hear the same way other people do. This can affect how they recognize and interpret sounds.

Language Processing Disorder (LPD) – Language Processing Disorder is a specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder. Students with a language disorder have extreme difficulty understanding and processing the speech and language they hear and have trouble expressing what they want to say.

Visual Processing Disorder – someone with a visual processing disorder struggles to interpret the visual information coming through their eyes. It is different from needing glasses since the eyes can work perfectly. The difficulty is how the brain processes the information coming through the eye.

Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities (NLD or NVLD) – Students with NVLD have trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor coordination. This can happen when a person has strong verbal/language process abilities paired with visual-spatial processing abilities.

Other Struggles Related to Learning Difficulties

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Executive Functioning – while there is a lot of debate as to whether or not ADHD is a learning disability in the technical sense, there is no doubt that attention disorders impede learning. Between 5% – 11% of students have been diagnosed with ADHD.

Developmental Coordination Disorder (also known as Dyspraxia) – students with DCD are often called “clumsy” or “awkward” due to their poor general coordination and hand-eye coordination needed for everyday tasks. “By definition, children with DCD do not have an identifiable medical or neurological condition that explains their coordination problems.” Developmental Coordination Disorder occurs in 5% – 6% of children when there is a delay in motor skills development.

Memory Deficits – working memory, short-term memory and long-term memory are all crucial tools the brain utilizes in the learning process. If the brain encounters any problems when trying to store or retrieve information, it may be unable to process both verbal and non-verbal information.

It is important to recognize that learning disorders are not an intellectual disability. People with learning disabilities are not dumb, in fact, they are often extremely intelligent. Students with learning disabilities simply have brains that work differently than someone who doesn’t have the same learning problems.

Does My Child Have a Learning Disability? Know the Signs

The National Center for Learning Disabilities estimates that 1 in 5 children in the US have a learning disability. The first step in getting help for your child is recognizing the signs of a learning disability. The following are some signs to look for in your child’s behavior and cognitive performance:

Cognitive Signs of a Learning Disability:

  • Often spelling the same word differently in a single assignment
  • Trouble with open-ended questions on tests
  • Poor reading and language comprehension
  • Weak memory skills
  • Difficulty in adapting skills from one setting to another
  • Slow work pace
  • Difficulty grasping abstract concepts
  • Inattention to details
  • Excessive focus on details
  • Frequent misreading/misinterpretation of information
  • Trouble filling out applications or forms
  • Easily confused by instructions
  • Poor organizational skills
  • Mental health problems like depression or anxiety

Behavioral Signs of a Learning Disability:

  • Not wanting to go to school
  • Complaining about the teacher
  • Reluctance to engage in reading/writing activities
  • Saying the work is too hard
  • Not wanting to show you schoolwork
  • Avoiding assignments/homework
  • Saying negative things about his or her academic performance, such as: “I’m dumb”
  • Disobeying teacher’s directions
  • Frequent misreading/misinterpretation of information
  • Cutting class and skipping school (in adolescents and teens)
  • Bullying

If your son or daughter is displaying some of these cognitive or behavioral symptoms, it is time to take the next steps.

I Think My Child Has a Learning Disability. What Do I Do?

Once you suspect that your son or daughter has a disability and have recognized some signs of a learning disability in their behavior, it is time to take action:

1. Talk to Your Child’s Teacher about Your Concerns

Share your concerns with your child’s teacher; chances are, he or she may have noticed some of the same things you did. Use this opportunity to collect information about your child’s academic performance and communicate openly about your son or daughter’s performance.

2. Find Out about Pre-referral Services

Before you have your son or daughter formally evaluated by a psychologist, his or her school may have an established process for providing you and your son or daughter with support. Find out what your child’s school can do or is doing for your child.

3. Keep Diligent Records of Your Child’s Education

Keep your own notes on your child’s academic development and meetings with their school’s personnel. Additionally, be sure to add all communication about your child’s academic performance from the school: test scores, report cards, and written comments from teachers. Keeping your son or daughter’s academic records organized will help you and their educators monitor his or her progress and will be crucial for their evaluation.

4. Know Your Rights

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), you, as a parent, have a right to request a free, formal evaluation for your child. Once you make a formal request for evaluation, IDEA puts a set of legal requirements and procedures into motion for his or her school district.

5. Request for Formal Evaluation under IDEA

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) gives parents the right to request a free, formal evaluation of their child. If you decide to make a formal request for evaluation, ensure that you put your request in writing.

Your local school district is responsible for the IDEA-mandated formal evaluation, even if your son or daughter is home-schooled or enrolled in private school. If your child is referred for evaluation by their school, you will receive written notice of the referral and will need to give your consent in order to proceed with the evaluation.

Under IDEA, schools have several requirements once it has been established that your son or daughter will be evaluated by the school district. The law requires:

  • You will be given a copy of the “Procedural Safeguards Notice,” which outlines your legal rights to ensure that your child receives the services he or she needs. This document is extremely important; be sure to read it carefully and know your rights as a parent.
  • The school district is required to complete the evaluation within an established period of time; IDEA requires that the evaluation is conducted within 60 calendar days of receiving parental consent; however, timing guidelines may vary by states.
  • The law sets certain requirements for evaluations. The evaluation must use a variety of scientifically proven procedures, strategies, and tools to examine each area in which a disability is suspected.
  • The school must present you with the plan for your son or daughter’s evaluation before the evaluation begins.
  • As a parent, you have the right to object to certain assessments or tests. In addition, you have the right to request that additional assessments or tests are added to the plan.

You also have the option to have your child privately evaluated, as opposed to having an evaluation facilitated by the school; however, if you choose to go with a private evaluation, the school is not responsible for the cost. As the parent, you have the right to choose whether or not to share the results of a private evaluation with your child’s school.

After your son or daughter’s evaluation, the school is required to provide you with a copy of the evaluation report. It is very important to request a copy of the evaluation report in writing.

My Child Has a Learning Disability. Now What?

Some parents get discouraged upon finding out about their son or daughter’s diagnosis; however, many individuals who have a learning disability can succeed scholastically and professionally. The key to success is individualized instruction that is carefully targeted, well-delivered, and research-based.

In addition to individualized instruction, a strong support system and high expectation (of themselves and from others) are two key aspects to success. It is vital that, as a parent, you are an advocate for your son or daughter. In order to become an effective advocate for your son or daughter, you should become informed about their learning disability, their rights under the law, and ways to help him or her succeed.

What Laws Give My Child Educational Rights?

There are three federal statutes that you should familiarize yourself with. These laws guarantee your son or daughter’s access to a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). The three federal laws include:

  • The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) provides special education services for public school students ages 3 to 21 who have disabilities; however, having a learning disability doesn’t automatically make a student eligible for special education. He or she must first go through an eligibility evaluation.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is a civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities in programs and activities which receive federal funding.
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a civil rights law that protects individuals with learning disabilities from discrimination in schools, the workplace, and other settings.

Once your child is formally diagnosed, he or she may receive an IEP or a 504 Plan; however, not all students who have disabilities require specialized instruction. Depending on your child’s diagnosis, he or she may receive a specialized plan.

What Is an IEP?

IEP stands for an Individualized Education Program. An IEP is required under IDEA for every student who receives special education services to make sure that each student receives individualized instruction and services. The IEP is written for each student by a team, which includes his or her parents, classroom teacher, special education teacher, school psychologist, and a school district representative who has authority over special education programs.

What Is a 504 Plan?

A 504 Plan is designed for students who have been diagnosed with a learning disability or an attention deficit who do not meet the eligibility requirements under IDEA. Since Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has a more expansive definition of a learning disability than IDEA does, students who do not meet the criteria to qualify for an IEP may be eligible to receive accommodations under a 504 plan. Like an IEP, a 504 plan is also a plan written specifically for each student to ensure his or her success in the classroom.

What Is the Difference?

For students who do require specialized instruction, IDEA controls the requirements, and an IEP is developed for that student. The program document is in-depth and outlines the child’s present academic performance, annual academic goals, special services the child will receive, how the institution will track the goals, standardized testing protocol, accommodations, and modifications. The IDEA process requires documentation of measurable growth and specialized instruction.

504 plans are less involved and are designed for students who do not require specialized instruction. While a team of at least five or six people are required to develop an IEP, a 504 plan can be developed among the child’s parent(s) and teachers. They are designed to ensure the student receives equal access to public education and services. ​A document is usually created to outline their specific accessibility requirements and names of who will provide each requirement or accommodation.

Accommodations vs Modifications

Some parents get discouraged upon finding out that their child has been diagnosed with a learning disability; however, many individuals who have a learning disability can succeed scholastically and professionally. When children are diagnosed with a learning disability, parents can sometimes be overwhelmed by the educational options; depending on their diagnosis, a child could receive an IEP or a 504 plan. In addition, a child’s curriculum could have accommodations or modifications to meet his or her specific learning needs; but, what’s the difference? Here is an overview of accommodations vs modifications, and examples of how each could be applied to your son or daughter’s academic curriculum.

What Is an “Accommodation”?

Accommodations are instructional or test adaptations that allow the student to demonstrate what he or she knows without fundamentally changing the targeted skill being taught in the classroom or measured during testing sessions. Accommodations do not reduce performance expectations; they simply change the manner or setting in which the information is presented, or how the student will respond.

Generally, many accommodations can be grouped into five categories:

  • Timing: ex. giving extended time to complete a test item or task
  • Flexible scheduling: ex. giving two weeks, rather than one to complete a project
  • Accommodated presentation of material: material is presented for the student in a different manner than traditionally presented
  • Setting: ex. completing a task or test in a quiet room
  • Response accommodation: ex. allowing the student to respond orally to a written test

What Is a “Modification”?

Modifications are instructional or test adaptations that change the targeted skill and often reduce learning expectations. They may affect the content in such a way that what is being taught or assessed is fundamentally changed.

Modification may lower performance expectations by:

  • Reducing the number of items required
  • Reducing the complexity of the items or task required
  • Simplifying the material, including vocabulary, principles, and concepts
  • Changing the scoring rubric or grading scale

While parents can get wrapped up in the details of their child’s educational plan, it is important to remember that the key to your son or daughter’s success is individualized instruction that is carefully targeted, well-delivered, and research-based. Aside from individualized instruction, a strong support system and high expectations (of themselves and from others) are vital to ensuring that children with learning disabilities succeed academically.

How Can I Help My Child Succeed at Home?

There are many ways you can help your son or daughter succeed– aside from being involved with their education plan and progress. Here are some ways to help your child reach their full potential:

1. Educate Yourself about Your Child’s Learning Disability

Find out as much as you can about your child’s learning disability. Learn about what kinds of tasks will be difficult for your son or daughter, what resources are available to aid him or her in overcoming those obstacles, and what you can do to make learning easier for your child.

2. Use Your Child’s Strengths to His or Her Advantage

Search for indications of how your son or daughter learns best, paying special attention to his or her interests, talents, and skills. Use these strengths to help them learn in a way that is most enjoyable for them. For example, if your son or daughter has a hard time reading information, but can easily comprehend things when listening, take advantage of this. Allow your son or daughter to listen to a book on tape or watch a video to take in new information.

3. Use Media Constructively and Creatively

Television, videos, podcasts, and other forms of media can actually be learning tools. If you can help your son or daughter select valuable programming to watch or listen to, this can be a great use of time. By watching a video or listening to a podcast, your son or daughter can learn to carefully listen, focus, sustain attention, and increase their vocabulary.

4. Increase Your Child’s Self Confidence

It is important to foster and grow your son or daughter’s self-confidence and maintain high expectations for him or her. While it is vital not to underestimate him or her, it is also important not to set unrealistic expectations. Rather than focusing on his or her shortcomings, focus on his or her strengths. In addition, make sure books are on your son or daughter’s reading level. Many children with a learning disability are reading below grade level. Foster your child’s love of reading, while making sure they do not become frustrated by ensuring that he or she is reading books on an appropriate level.

Conclusion

If you suspect your son or daughter has a learning disability, the best thing you can do is to get them the help necessary to be successful. Recognizing, accepting, and understanding your son or daughter’s learning disability are the first steps to ensuring your son or daughter’s success.

Being an advocate for your son or daughter involves being involved in the testing process, knowing which laws your child is protected under, and helping your child succeed in and outside of the school environment.

Resources

Additional Resources

For additional resources on helping your child, please visit our website’s resource section: https://aspiroadventure.com/family-resources/suggested-reading/

This article is sponsored by Aspiro Adventure, the pioneer of Wilderness Adventure Therapy. Aspiro Adventure offers safe, effective, and clinically-sophisticated treatment options for adolescents and young adults with learning differences.

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

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Aspiro Adventure’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging individuals on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

By Josh Watson, LCSW, CMO at Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program
  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

Motivating Teens & Young Adults: Over 65 Insights & Tips to Help Gifted Underachievers

Motivating Teens & Young Adults: Over 65 Insights & Tips to Help Gifted Underachievers | Aspiro Adventure Therapy 

In this article, we discuss motivating teens and young adults and provide an overview of the reasons some young people are unmotivated and underachieving in school. We focus on aiding these individuals who are experiencing academic failure by helping them work through a variety of challenges, including, but not limited to: anxiety, depression, family conflict, self-esteem issues, risky/harmful behaviors, substance abuse, and behavior issues.

This article is written for parents, teachers, school counselors, or anyone needing advice on where to turn to help a teen or young adult who is unmotivated, underachieving, or struggling in school.

Wilderness Therapy: A Remedy for Low Motivation, Underachievement, and School Failure

Some students experience trouble in school due to learning disabilities or a neurodevelopmental issue such as ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder. Other students, however, struggle in school due to a lack of motivation. It is not uncommon for teens and young adults who have typically earned good grades in the past to start underachieving in middle school, high school, or college.

While parents often attribute this lack of motivation to their child simply being “lazy” or unchallenged, a sudden change in academic performance can signify a deeper issue. When adolescents and young adults are struggling emotionally or psychologically, their grades can certainly be impacted.

What is Motivation?

“The term motivation refers to factors that activate, direct, and sustain goal-directed behavior… Motives are the ‘whys’ of behavior – the needs or wants that drive behavior and explain what we do. We don’t actually observe a motive; rather, we infer that one exists based on the behavior we observe” (Nevid, 2013).

Theories of Motivation:

Researchers in biology, psychology, and economics have all developed various theories to explain motivation.  Many of the theories separate motivation into two types:

  • Intrinsic motivation – behaviors are performed because of the innate or inherent sense of personal satisfaction that they bring.
  • Extrinsic motivation – behaviors are performed in order to receive something from others—such as praise, attention, or social status.

Unfortunately, no individual theory fully explains motivation and what drives behavior. However, by looking at the key ideas behind each theory, you can gain a better understanding of motivation as a whole (click on each theory to learn more):

The Drive Reduction Theory states that our behavior is driven to satisfy certain drives.  If our hunger grows strong enough, we are driven to take action to reduce the feeling and we eat something.

Arousal in this sense does not refer to sexual intimacy, but rather a state of being alert, awake, and attentive. In terms of motivation, Arousal includes pursuits that help them to feel a sense of fulfillment or accomplishment. People are motivated to engage in behaviors that help them maintain their optimal level of arousal, and depend on individual arousal levels:

  • low arousal levels – content to simply read a book
  • high arousal threshold – engaged in risk-seeking behaviors.
Humanistic Theories of Motivation states that people are motivated to fulfill basic biological needs for food and shelter, as well as those of safety, love, and esteem. Once the lower level needs have been met, the primary motivator becomes the need for self-actualization, or the desire to fulfill one’s individual potential.

Incentive Theory of Motivation says that behavior is primarily motivated by the incentive of extrinsic factors. In other words, people are motivated to do things because of external rewards or to avoid external consequences.

Expectancy theory of motivation says that when we are thinking about the future, we formulate different expectations about what we think will happen. When we predict that there will most likely be a positive outcome, we believe that we are able to make that possible future a reality. This leads people to feel more motivated to pursue those likely outcomes.

The Stages of Motivation: Identifying Where Motivation Breaks Down

If you can identify at which stage your teen’s motivation breaks down, you can better know how to intervene. In psychology there are three fundamental stages of motivation:

  • activation – the actual decision a person will make to begin a specific type of behavior.
  • persistence – the factor in which a person will continue moving forward with a specific and set goal, even when hurdles are thrown in their way.
  • intensity – how much concentration, focus, and energy is put into the pursuit of a specific goal.

Again, motivation is defined as, “a cause or reason to act, an inner urge that moves or prompts a person to action.” If you want to motivate a teen or young adult, you can either increase the reasons to act or decrease the reasons to not act in each of these stages. In order to increase reasons to act, it is helpful to know what is causing the lack of motivation.

Causes of Low Motivation and Academic Underachievement

When an otherwise bright and capable student starts to experience school troubles due to a lack of motivation, parents, teachers, and school counselors will often attribute this lack of motivation as “laziness” or “slacking off.” While, sometimes, poor grades are simply a reflection of a student’s apathy toward school, other times it can be a warning sign that your child is struggling with something bigger. Academic underachievement and low motivation in teens and young adults can be triggered by any of the following issues (click on each item to learn more):

Goals can de-motivate a teenager when their goals are not their own, but ones that have been set for them by authority figures.  These goals are something you want them to accomplish, but they may not be something they want for themselves. Their heart just isn’t in the effort.

If your son or daughter has grown up overly focused on pleasing others and living exclusively the life you have planned out for them, they will end up with NO IDEA what they want or even who they are.  It is important to give your teen as much autonomy as is appropriate, let them fail, let them succeed entirely on their own, and let them figure out who they are and what they want for their own lives.  Help them to find their WHY.

A fixed mindset is when your teen believes their capabilities are fixed.  They are either good at something or bad at something.  This mindset is easily identified by phrases like, “I’m not very creative,” or “I’m not very good at math.” When teenagers adopt a growth mindset, they learn that they may be bad at something right now, but with practice, they can improve and become “good” at something.

It is important for your teen to have goals that are challenging but not overwhelming. Goals that are too small don’t inspire motivation, but goals that are too big seem impossible to achieve.

As adolescents transition into their high school years, there is an increased pressure to perform well in school, get into college, play well in sports, do well on tests, etc. When high schoolers make the transition to higher education, there is the added pressure and responsibility of being on one’s own for the first time. Some students simply are not prepared for these added stressors, leading to an overwhelming feeling of anxiety, depression or low self-esteem. This can certainly hamper academic performance.

There are few things that are as demotivating as feeling obligated to accomplish goals that you think are impossible to achieve. There are a couple of common causes for feeling overwhelmed:

  • Lack of clarity: either on what the actual goal is or on what to do next to accomplish the goal. If this is the case, help your teen or young adult make SMART Goals. These are goals that are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-bound.
  • Lack of task, project, and self-management skills: your teen or young adult may not know how to break tasks and projects down into manageable chunks. Help them identify the different steps it will take to accomplish a goal, and then help your teen to put each step on a calendar so they know how much time & effort it will take to accomplish.
  • They lack the necessary knowledge & skills: Imagine if you had never played the piano and someone told you that you needed to give a performance at a recital in 3 days. Your teen or young adult may feel the same way about accomplishing their goals. They just don’t know how to do it.
  • Procrastination: some teens and young adults (especially those with ADHD) crave the intensity that a deadline provides. They get a rush when they put off study sessions until the night before a test, or submit a paper with just minutes to spare. These teens argue that they do their best work at the last minute. Unfortunately, teens are terrible at estimating how much time and effort a project will take. As they get older and projects get harder, this habit leads to a recurring feeling of being overwhelmed. Help your teenager better manage their time and energy & avoid this “motivation by disaster” habit.
  • They are simply exhausted: If your teenager is already a particularly high achiever, or even if they are simply unused to exerting a sustained effort, they may be experiencing burn out.

Parents can do too much planning and problem-solving for their teen or young adult. We all want our kids to succeed and avoid the sting of failure.  Our best intentions lead us to be overly involved in their school and extra-curricular activities, sometimes to the point of doing projects almost entirely for them.  When you make ALL of the decisions for your teen, it trains them to be comfortable feeling helpless, knowing that you will ALWAYS do it for them. Learn to support your son or daughter without doing things for them by teaching them to embrace the decision-making process, not run from it.  Give them control of their own life, but don’t make them feel like they have to navigate life on their own.  It’s a fine line and will take some practice, but you can learn how to empower and support at the same time. 

If your teenager or young adult never finishes anything, they may struggle with either the persistence or intensity stages of motivation. There are three common causes for this lack of grit:

  • Failure to experience success: If your son or daughter has never experienced that emotional reward of accomplishing something they’ve worked hard to achieve, they don’t know what they’re missing. Encourage them to stick with a smaller but difficult goal, and when they finally achieve it, make it a big deal and truly celebrate. As they build on that success and accomplish more difficult tasks, their self-confidence and ability to tolerate discomfort will grow over time.
  • Failure to experience consequences: This often happens either when parents shield their kids from life’s natural consequences or struggle to enforce consequences in their own family. It is important to let your teenager learn from failure.
  • Mental health struggles: sometimes, this could be indicative of depression, anxiety, or a learning difference like ADHD. If you think this may be the case, please consult a professional to have your teen tested.

Most parents don’t truly understand the power of their words and actions. Sometimes our efforts to “toughen up” teenagers or young adults or to help them see a key character flaw results in shame rather than motivation.

These teenagers and young adults often feel they have to be perfect and are afraid of never measuring up. To counter this, make sure you focus A LOT more on the positives than on the negatives. Research suggests that it is best to give positive feedback 5 times more than constructive criticism.

Lack of sleep, poor exercise and nutrition habits, and toxic relationships all contribute to low motivation.  Help your son or daughter get 7-8 hours of sleep each night, avoid junk food (especially energy drinks and sugary foods), and have them take a walk around the block every day.  In addition to helping their overall health and well-being, it will increase their motivation.

​When teens and young adults have low self-esteem and self-confidence, this is typically accompanied by low-performance standards for themselves. They don’t believe they can achieve what they’re striving for. What looks like laziness may be fear of failure, exposure, pressure or, most of all, the future. Even the brightest individuals with low self-esteem can believe themselves incapable of performing well in school. In order for your son or daughter to be motivated to accomplish anything, they must first believe it is possible for them to succeed.

In a strange phenomenon, these teens and young adults often become comfortable being unhappy. In fact, they become so comfortable being unhappy, that it can be uncomfortable for them to feel happy. They not only struggle to believe that they can accomplish something, whenever they do they can feel that they aren’t deserving of the accomplishment.

And because your teen or young adult is uncomfortable with happiness, they don’t trust it. They often seek out a more familiar feeling of emptiness and discouragement. In these scenarios, they are not only unmotivated to accomplish a goal, but they also tend to self-sabotage.

Teens and adults display signs and symptoms of depression very differently. An adult who is depressed is more likely to outwardly appear sad. Teens and young adults, however, may appear angry, irritable, or just apathetic. School failure can be indicative of unmanaged or undiagnosed depression in young people.

Anxiety disorders are some of the most common diagnoses in young people. Because anxiety symptoms are associated with impaired cognitive functions, including concentration, anxiety can–much like depression–appear not just as excessive worry, but fear of judgment, unwillingness to try new or previously engaged in tasks/assignments, irritability, anger, and physical symptoms such as frequent stomachaches and headaches. At times students might display apathy towards assignments, saying “I don’t care about school,” when really they are anxious about underperforming, being wrong, or being judged negatively by others.

Adolescents and young adults who are the targets of bullying can often experience feelings of social isolation, loneliness, anxiety, low self-esteem, and fear. These negative emotions can, in turn, lead to poor academic performance. In addition, since school is oftentimes the scene where bullying occurs, some victims will skip school altogether to avoid the conflict.

While many adolescents and young adults demonstrate a high level of maturity, most are not emotionally equipped to deal with major family conflict or trauma such as divorce, abuse, adoption issues, and similar situations. Some adults even have trouble dealing with these issues. Due to their inability to cope with the negative feelings associated with these situations, some will experience major anxiety and emotional turmoil that has the potential to hamper academic performance as well.

Grief is a hard emotion for anyone of any age to overcome. For adolescents and young adults who are less familiar with this emotion, the death of a family member, pet, friend, or peer can be overwhelming and hard to process. Young people may struggle to give it 100% in many aspects of their lives (relationships, jobs, sports, hobbies) after a loss, but the ramifications of failing in school are something that can follow them for some time.

When teens and adolescents start experimenting with drugs and alcohol, a drop in grades and a change in peer groups are usually two of the very first (and biggest) signs.

Because poor academic performance is often a reflection of emotional or psychological turmoil, parents shouldn’t simply dismiss bad grades or underachievement as their child being “lazy.” If you know your son or daughter isn’t living up to their potential, talk to him or her. Find out what’s going on. If you suspect that their underachievement may be simply the symptom of a more serious emotional or psychological issue, talk to his or her physician or mental health care provider.

Ways to Motivate Teens and Young Adults at Home

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The high school and college years are full of some major life changes for many students. Whether your “A student” has become a “C student” or your child is failing every class, academic underperformance and underachievement can be a sign of an internal struggle. There are, however, some ways you can help your child if he or she is struggling with academics. Here are the Do’s and Don’ts of helping an underachieving student who lacks motivation (click on each item to learn more):

Every individual is different. Comparisons to their siblings, classmates, or friends can be extremely detrimental to your child. Statements like, “Why can’t you get good grades like your sister?” or “Your friends all got A’s on their projects!?” simply aren’t helpful. Some parents will even compare their child’s academic performance to their own, “I loved history when I was in high school! I got an A.” This can make your child feel inferior to others and that they will never be good enough as a person. If your son or daughter is struggling with an emotional or psychological issue such as depression or low self-esteem, statements like these can exacerbate the problem.

In addition to making comparisons to others, if your child is experiencing emotional or psychological turmoil, criticizing your child’s efforts can simply exacerbate the problem. Avoid labels like, lazy and unmotivated. Rather than criticizing, seek to understand their difficulties, help them know you see the good in them as a person. In addition, ask how you can help. “Do you need to drop an after-school activity to have more time for homework? Would a quiet working space help? How about after-school tutoring or lessons?” Limit arguing and lecturing, yelling never helps, discussing does.

When your child does perform well academically, make sure to praise each step in the right direction. Whether they aced their big midterm or improved their grade on an assignment, positive reinforcement is a significant motivator. In addition, it is vital to challenge any negative statements about him or herself. For example, if you child states that he or she failed a test “Because I’m so stupid,” simply remind them that, “You didn’t do well for the test, it’s not the end of the world. Let’s talk to your teacher to see how you can improve for next time.”

Chances are if you have noticed your child’s waning academic performance, so has his or her teacher. Reaching out to school staff to notify them of your child’s struggles will help to ensure that they don’t slip through the cracks. In addition, your child’s teacher being more aware of the situation means it is more likely that they will know to notify you if he or she skips class or fails a major project or test.

If your child is having troubles in school, have him or her screened for a learning disability or neurodevelopment issue (such as ADHD) to rule that out as a possible culprit behind his or her waning academic performance. While many individuals are diagnosed as children, over 60 percent of adults with literacy problems have an undiagnosed learning disability. In addition, some students with ADHD (and in particular predominantly Inattentive ADHD) aren’t diagnosed (and therefore do not receive help) until the high school, college, or adult years.

​Depression and anxiety rob teens and emerging adults of the desire and energy to progress. If you suspect your son or daughter is struggling with depression or anxiety, please see a therapist or medical professional. If depression and anxiety are severe enough, you may need to consider a treatment program like wilderness therapy.

The goal of motivating teens and young adults is to get them to eventually be able to live independently and strive to achieve life’s goals without you pushing them. You can mold intrinsic motivation once you learn details about what fuels your teenager or young adult. Here are some ways to help your son or daughter develop internal or intrinsic motivation and not rely on external or extrinsic motivation.

  • Use incentives carefully Avoid external rewards and punishments as much as possible.  Research shows that external rewards can actually decrease intrinsic motivation.  External rewards, praise, punishment, etc. can be very effective, but there is a better way.  Help your son or daughter recognize their natural feelings of accomplishment after completing a task.  Or encourage them to study a subject that already fascinates them.
  • Recognize efforts and achievements – Celebrate your son or daughter’s effort and don’t focus solely on traits or outcomes.  This helps develop motivation for the process and the grit to tolerate the discomfort that may come as they work towards achieving a goal.
  • Celebrate strengths – You will find it is much easier to develop intrinsic motivation in your child if you focus on what they are good at and stop dwelling on what there are not good at.  If your son or daughter loves art and despises math, help nurture that creativity.  Or if they prefer biology to English, go with it. Your child has unique gifts, talents, and interests.  Teaching young people to discover their gifts and talents helps develop motivation.
  • Play video games – This may seem counterintuitive but playing video games teaches teens and young adults to put in consistent and sometimes prolonged effort to accomplish a goal.  Just make sure you set limits around playing video games.

As your child transitions to adulthood, it is important that you give them as much opportunity to practice independence as possible.  This applies to motivation as well.  Here is how you can start to put your teen or young adult in the driver’s seat:

  • Reflect on your own motivations – in looking for ways to motivate your teen or young adult, it’s important to reflect on the origins of the goal you want them to achieve.  Is it something they chose to accomplish or is it something you chose for them?
  • Let your child state his or her own goals – when you let your son or daughter have a say in which goals to pursue, it helps them to take ownership of the goal. 
  • Leverage their radical self-interest – help your teen or young adult answer the question, “What’s in it for me?”  Once you help them understand the benefits that come from living a goal-centered life, they will be more open to practicing their motivation.
  • Expand their vision of the future ­– sometimes it is hard for teenagers and young adults to imagine that anything can be more important than what is going on in their lives at this very moment.  Help them develop motivation by painting a picture of what life could be like 2, 5, or 10 years into the future.  Once they catch the vision, the motivation to act today comes much more easily.
  • Make it achievable – previously we talked about how demotivating it is when your son or daughter feels like there is no way to accomplish a goal.  Avoid that overwhelming feeling by making sure everyone agrees on the end goal, the steps it will take to accomplish the goal, and the time frame. 
  • Don’t move the goal post – Once the goal is set, stick to it.  Don’t change the goal halfway through.  If goals are always changing, your son or daughter may feel like it is impossible to achieve them and lack of motivation to keep trying.
  • Seek out sources of inspiration – Dreaming motivates everyone, including teens and young adults.  One of the best ways to find a dream or goal is to be inspired by something.  When we see other people accomplish amazing things, it helps us expand our self-perception of what we are capable of.  Connect your teen or young adult with positive mentors and role models to help lift their motivation.  Take them to an art gallery, a concert, a sports game, watch an inspirational movie, or host an Olympics party.  Enroll them in sports, send them to robotics camp, or join an outdoor adventure group–Anything that will get positive mentors and inspiration in your child’s life.  
  • Encourage them to journal journaling helps teens and young adults understand their own thoughts and feelings.  It can be their sounding board just to get everything out of their head so it is easier to examine and challenge when needed.
  • Challenge the negative voices in their head – Everyone has a voice in their head telling them to play it safe and to not take too many risks.  Sometimes this voice can be negative, telling your son or daughter that they aren’t good enough, strong enough, or talented enough to accomplish their dreams.  It is safer to just spend the foreseeable future on your couch and not try anything too daring.  Ask your teenager about the negative beliefs they have about themselves and together develop a plan so that both of your actions challenge those negative voices and beliefs.

Maintaining a solid connection with your teen or young adult helps facilitate motivation. Here are some ways you can build your relationship and provide “motivation through involvement.”

    • Empathize – put yourself in their shoes.  Seek first to understand, and then to be understood.  Resolve any problems once you truly understand what’s going on with your teen or young adult.
    • Quantity over quality – It’s important for you to be there for the special moments and celebrations in your child’s life.  It is also important for you to support them through the boring, tedious, or uneventful moments as well.  The uneventful, but consistent relationship building provides a foundation for your child to practice being an adult and then come back to tell you about it.
    • Be Mindful Pay attention to what is going on in your child’s life.  What are their patterns, what do they get excited about, what are their friendships like?  If it is hard to find the time to talk, see if you can set up a regular date night or a scheduled hang out with your kid.  Go do something fun and show genuine interest in what is happening in their life.
  • Communicate Encourage communication that is clear, sincere and open by using the EAR method:
    • Encourage Ask open-ended questions and validate your son or daughter’s feelings.
    • Affirm You can show you understand without agreeing. “I know it’s not easy for you to talk about this,”
    • Reflective Listening  Repeat what you heard in your own words to show that you get it.

If you encounter resistance when trying to motivate your child, try the Stop, Drop and Roll strategy created by psychologists Sylvie Naar-King and Mariann Suarez:

      • Stop and evaluate – Is your son or daughter escalating, blaming, stonewalling?
      • Drop your current approach
      • Roll with the resistance – Make a statement that shows you get it, quit for now and try another approach later.
  • Listen to them Practice motivational interviewing by asking open-ended questions about your son or daughter’s life and truly listen to the response. Fight your urge to comment or advise. Ask them what they are feeling and strive to connect and validate those feelings.
  • Always follow-through Teach by example and make sure you always keep your promises and commitments, including holding boundaries and implementing consequences. If you have a hard time remembering, try using a “contract” with your son or daughter.  Outline what each of you commit to and what the expected outcomes will be.

There are 4 common parenting styles: Authoritarian, Permissive, Uninvolved, and Authoritative.  Authoritative parents create positive relationships with their kids while still setting boundaries and enforcing rules.  Here are some authoritative parenting strategies that can help increase motivation in your teen or young adult.

  • Focus on having influence, not control – One of the hardest realizations for any parent is to recognize the only person they can control is themselves.  Instead of demanding that your son or daughter comply with your rules and using punishments and bribes to get them to obey, try to influence them instead. Instead of telling them to do something, take the time to explain why it is important, discuss all their options, and talk about the potential consequences of their choices.  Imagine they are on a jury and you are a lawyer.  You can’t force them to make a certain decision, but you can make your case.
  • Joint problem-solving – Include your son or daughter in the decision-making process as often as you can.  It’s okay to let them know that you don’t have all the answers.  Simply state the problem and see if you can come up with a solution together. In doing so, you give them the respect they desperately seek and show them you are on their side.
  • Hold boundaries and follow through on consequences While you should include your teen or young adult when setting boundaries and deciding on consequences, it is up to you to hold those boundaries and follow through on consequences.  Doing so can actually help your teen or young adult feel secure, knowing that their home foundation isn’t going to shift depending on your mood or how badly they act out.
  • Help them remember – Use planners, checklists, external timers, and visible reminders to help your son or daughter remember their goals and track their progress.  This keeps goals and projects top of mind and helps keep them on track. It will also help you avoid nagging.
  • Stick to a bedtime routine free of electronics – As mentioned above, lack of sleep is a huge motivation killer.  Set a consistent time for you all to go to sleep, and together as a family, turn off your electronics at least an hour before.
  • Provide regular drug tests ­ 75% of high school students today have used addictive substances.  By regularly drug testing your teen or young adult, it gives them an easy reason to refuse invitations to use drugs & alcohol.
  • Share the responsibility provide opportunities for your teen or young adult to have control and make positive choices in their life.  Give them chores to do or have them cook dinner once a week.  Teach your teen or young adult how to accomplish a task and share the joy of doing something well.

When trying to motivate teens and young adults, it is important to focus on the process, not just the final outcome.  Think about a basketball team; if a coach only focused on what happened in the game, the team wouldn’t win very many games.  Rather, coaches provide guidance and direction during practice so that each player’s ability is well honed by game time.  Here are ways you can focus on the journey:

  • Allow small failures  Failure is an important part of learning.  You want to save your son or daughter from repeating your mistakes, but at the same time are you preventing them from learning the lessons that shaped who you are?  Let them learn from failure.  As they fail in small & safe ways, their learning grows until they are able to master what they are working on.
  • Don’t rescue them Allow your son or daughter to work out problems on their own first.  If they ask for help, don’t just give them the solution, but teach them how you came up with the solution.  Empower them so they can do things on their own next time.
  • Give them permission to not have it all figured out in high school – Don’t worry if they don’t know what they will do when they leave school.  The General Ed requirements in college are designed to expose young adults to a wide variety of subjects in order to help them find their passions.  And most people change careers three or more times in their life.  It’s a process.  What’s important is that they just start and try different interests.  The worst thing for them is if they stay paralyzed by fear or shame because they think they should have life all figured out.
  • Don’t make excuses – if your son or daughter is struggling in life or school, don’t shield them from consequences with excuses.  While you may be trying to shield them from pain or criticism, you may be conveying that you don’t believe they are capable.  Let your teen or young adult fail.  Let them experience the pain of the failure.  Validate that feeling and let them know that you believe they will succeed if they keep trying.
  • Never give up – in addition to letting your teenager or young adult fail, it is okay to give yourself permission to not have it all figured out as well.  Not everything you try is going to work.  That is okay, as long as you don’t give up.  If one of these tips doesn’t work, keep trying until you find something that does.  And please remember it is okay to seek help from a professional.  Therapists and treatment programs help teens & young adults find motivation everyday.

Practice using humor whenever you are frustrated.  It can change your whole family’s attitude. See if you can gamify homework and the learning process. Turn chores into a race or make cooking dinner into a singing competition.  Do whatever best fits your family but make things fun.

Options to Aid Academic Underachievers

As discussed previously, when otherwise bright and capable students are displaying waning academic performance, it can be a result of an unresolved emotional or psychological issue. Once they have ruled out the possibility of a learning disability or neurodevelopmental issue, many parents are unsure of where to turn. While every individual is different, here are some possible options to help your child:

Mentoring/Tutoring

If your child is having a hard time adjusting, a good first step in helping him or her is academic mentoring/tutoring. Some students who have done well in grade school and middle school are not used to having to study and work hard to maintain good grades. Enrolling your child in tutoring or mentoring sessions will help with any deficits in his or her studying habits, learning style, organizational skills, and note-taking strategies.

Counseling

If you suspect that your child’s waning academic performance is likely due to an unresolved psychological or emotional struggle, he or she may not feel comfortable talking with you about it. And that’s okay. However, these issues need to be addressed to avoid further disruptions in his or her academic development. Your child’s guidance counselor or physician may be a good starting point since he or she is likely familiar with your child. If they suspect that your child needs further assistance, they will be able to point you in the direction of a credible educational consultant or mental health professional.

Treatment Programs

Sometimes when psychological or emotional issues are present and talk therapy isn’t enough, a treatment program may be the best option for your son or daughter. While no parent ever wants to send their child away from home to receive assistance, it may be worth exploring the benefits of residential treatment. One type of treatment program that has proven especially effective at helping teens and young adults through difficult situations is wilderness therapy. The disadvantages of treatment–absence from school, separation from family and friends–are short-term, but the benefits to participants have the potential to last a lifetime.

Should I Interrupt My Child’s School Year for Treatment?

When your child is performing poorly in school, it may seem counterintuitive to pull him or her out for mental health treatment. However, if an unresolved psychological or emotional issue is the reason behind your son or daughter’s struggles in school, it may be the best way to get him or her back on track. If left unresolved, their poor academic performance could result in the following:

  • Falling further behind in school
  • Increased risk of engaging in high-risk behaviors (i.e., substance abuse, promiscuity, suicide)
  • Resentment towards and disengagement from family and healthy support groups
  • Not getting into a good college, university, or graduate program
  • Further detriment to his or her self-esteem
  • Hampering his or her chances at a successful career

In addition, if left unresolved, mental health issues or emotional turmoil could become exacerbated and can cause many problems in a young person’s life, including:

  • Developing maladaptive coping mechanisms to deal with stress or negative emotions that will be more difficult to address later in life
  • Isolation from one’s family and/or peers
  • Increased likelihood for mental health problems later in life

Making the choice to send your child away for residential treatment is difficult, as it will interrupt your life and theirs. The type of intervention provided by residential treatment and, in particular, wilderness therapy may be best executed over several months, and that means that your child will miss school.

The most reputable wilderness therapy programs partner with accredited educational certification programs to ensure that credits are provided and that they will transfer successfully when your teen goes back to school. Earning at least some academic credits while also working through mental health issues may be the ideal situation for your child.

How Wilderness Therapy Addresses Low Motivation and Academic Underachievement

Promotes Self Esteem, Identity Development, and Self Concept

According to Keith C. Russell, a leading wilderness therapy researcher, completing a wilderness therapy program can help to remedy deficits in self-esteem. The strong sense of accomplishment upon completion “is combined with physical health and well-being, which may help clients feel better about themselves, leading to increases in self-esteem and the first steps towards personal growth.”(Russell 2001) In addition, Russell argues that, “An enhanced self-concept represents a sense of empowerment and resiliency.”(Russell 2001)

Mark Widmer, a leading researcher in recreation and adventure therapy, echoes the importance of identity development during the wilderness therapy process. According to Widmer, “Organized activities appear to provide an ideal context for the promotion of positive identity development.” (Widmer 2009)

Provides a Strong Sense of Accomplishment for Teens

A major aspect of the success of wilderness therapy in aiding teens and young adults who are underperforming academically is the strong sense of accomplishment upon completion. Russell states that “completing a wilderness therapy program represents a sense of accomplishment for the client that is concrete and real and can be used to draw strength from in the future.” (Russell 2001) That strength will prove useful in overcoming future obstacles in your teen’s life.

Aids in Self Efficacy

When young people complete a wilderness therapy program with a strong sense of accomplishment, this, in turn, can help lead to higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is the belief that one can accomplish difficult things. Adolescents and young adults believe that “If I completed all of these difficult tasks during wilderness therapy, I can do other difficult things!”

According to Russell, “Clients leave wilderness therapy knowing that they have only just begun the journey and need to continue their own personal growth process.” Higher levels of self-efficacy are linked to greater motivation, positive thinking skills, and lower vulnerability to stress and depression in teens.

Additional Resources on Motivating Teens

  • Duerden, Widmer, Taniguchi, McCoy, J. Kelly “Adventures in identity development: The impact of a two-week adventure program on adolescent identity development”, Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, Edition 4, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 341-359, 2009.
  • Legault, L., Green-Demers, I., & Pelletier, L. (2006). Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic amotivation and the role of social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 567–582.
  • Russell, Keitth C., (2001) “What is Wilderness Therapy?” The Journal of Experiential Education, Vol. 24, 70-79 http://www.pps.k12.or.us/files/tag/Characteristics.pdf

About Aspiro Adventure Therapy Program

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This article was sponsored by Aspiro Adventure, the pioneer of Wilderness Adventure Therapy. Aspiro Adventure offers safe, effective, and clinically-sophisticated treatment options for adolescents and young adults.

Aspiro’s Wilderness Adventure Therapy program was uniquely crafted to assist students and their families in creating lasting, life-long emotional changes through compassionate, intentional, research-backed, and safe outdoor adventure therapy programs. The professionals at Aspiro Adventure understand individuals don’t come with instructions, and every student is unique, capable, and amazing in their own right.

Aspiro Adventure focuses on helping adolescents, young adults, and their families through difficulties that occur when various behavioral, cognitive, or developmental issues are present. Research shows that engaging participants on a personal level with strategic and intentional activities will aid in developing the tools and skills necessary to engage life in a healthy and positive way.

Written by:

  • Josh Watson, LCSW
    Josh Watson, LCSW
    CMO

COVID-19 Update

Aspiro Adventure Therapy is continuing to support families through this unprecedented time. We are closely monitoring information related to COVID-19 and have implemented additional safety precautions to mitigate risks. Our enhanced admissions screening and program guidelines are informed by the CDC and Utah department of health. To learn more, contact us at (801) 349-2740.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Leigh Uhlenkott, NCC, LMHC
Adolescent & Young Adult Males and Females, Ages 13-26

Also specializes in: NLD / Spectrum Disorders / Learning and Executive Functioning Issues / Substance Dependence / Obesity / Self-Esteem Issues / Adoption / School Refusal / Anger Management / ADHD / Oppositional Defiance Disorder

During her 20 years of experience, Leigh has worked at a therapeutic boarding school for boys specializing in learning disabilities, 3 wilderness therapy programs; Expedition/Nomadic model, Transition Model, and now an Adventure-based programming model working with adolescents with multiple diagnoses, and a school in Broward County, FL providing counseling, prevention work, and substance abuse counseling for adolescents. Leigh also has training in and a certification for working with transgendered clients. She has extensive experience working effectively with these clients and is passionate about doing so. Leigh’s eclectic approach fosters her ability to be creative with each individual she works with, finding the best possible interventions to meet their needs. She enjoys helping struggling families’ find their common ground so that they can move forward out of crisis. Leigh has a particular strength in utilizing wilderness therapy to find the perfect metaphors and rites of passage to support real change and sustainable success. When not working, she enjoys traveling and spending time with her family, friends, and her two rescue dogs—Fluffy and Yoda.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.

Josh Watson, LCSW
CMO

Also specializes in: crisis de-escalation / anxiety resolution / frustration tolerance / verbal de-escalation / CBT/DBT / interpersonal relationships/leadership development

Josh has been working with adolescents, young adults, and their families since 2001. As an original member of the Aspiro Leadership Team, Josh has fulfilled several roles at Aspiro including Clinical Wilderness Therapist, Clinical Supervision, Admissions Director, Strategic Development, and currently serves as the Chief Marketing Officer. He is passionate about carrying out the mission of Aspiro and creating the best possible experience for our clients. When Josh is not at work he enjoys traveling, cooking, outdoor adventure (of course!), golf, and spending time doing just about anything with his wife and two daughters.